The province is the highest tier of local government subnational entity in Indonesia. Each province has its own local government, headed by a governor, and has its own legislative body. The governor and member of local representatives are elected by popular vote for five-year terms.
The counties of Ireland are land divisions, originally formed following the Norman invasion. Between the late 1190s and 1607, the island of Ireland was divided into thirty-two counties. Under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, "Home Rule" institutions were created in two divisions of Ireland, 26 counties forming Southern Ireland and six counties forming Northern Ireland.
A Special Administrative Region (SAR) is a provincial-level administrative division in the People's Republic of China. Each SAR has a governmental chief executive as head of the region and head of government. The People's Republic of China, at present, has two special administrative regions, Hong Kong and Macau. They should not be confused with special economic zones, which are regions fully under the administration of the Central People's Government.
Tonga, officially the Kingdom of Tonga, an archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, comprises 169 islands, 36 of them inhabited. The Kingdom stretches over a distance of about 800 kilometres (500 miles) in a north-south line. The islands that constitute the archipelago lie south of Samoa, about one-third of the way from New Zealand to Hawaiʻi. Tonga also became known as the Friendly Islands because of the friendly reception accorded to Captain James Cook on his first visit in 1773.
The voivodeship or province has been a high-level administrative subdivision of Poland since the 14th century. Pursuant to the Polish local government reforms passed in 1998, which came into effect on January 1, 1999, sixteen new voivodeships were created. These replaced the 49 former voivodeships that had existed from July 1, 1975. Today's voivodeships are largely based on the country's historic regions, while those of 1975–1998 were centred on and named for individual cities.
South Africa is currently divided into nine provinces. On the eve of the 1994 general election, South Africa's former homelands, also known as Bantustans, were reintegrated and the four existing provinces were divided into nine. The twelfth, thirteenth and sixteenth amendments to the constitution changed the borders of seven of the provinces.
An autonomous community (Comunidad Autónoma in Spanish) is the first-level political division of the Kingdom of Spain, established in accordance with the Spanish Constitution. The second article of the constitution recognizes the rights of "regions and nationalities" to self-government and declares the "indissoluble unity of the Spanish nation". Political power in Spain is channeled by a central government and 17 autonomous communities.
A Dutch province represents the administrative layer in between the national government and the local municipalities, having the responsibility for matters of subnational or regional importance. The government of each province consists of three major parts: the Provinciale Staten which is the provincial parliament elected every four years.
France is administratively divided into 26 regions, of which 22 are on mainland France, and four are overseas. Corsica is a territorial collectivity, but is considered a region in mainstream usage, and is even shown as such on the INSEE Web site. Each mainland region and Corsica are further subdivided into two to eight departments.
The region is the top tier of local government in New Zealand. There are 16 regions of New Zealand. Twelve are governed by an elected regional council, while four are governed by territorial authorities (the second tier of local government) which also perform the functions of a regional council and thus are known as unitary authorities. The Chatham Islands Council is similar to a unitary authority, but is authorised under its own enabling legislation.
The prefectures of Japan are the country's 47 subnational jurisdictions: one "metropolis" (都 to), Tokyo; one "circuit" (道 dō), Hokkaidō; two urban prefectures (府 fu), Osaka and Kyoto; and 43 other prefectures (県 ken). In Japanese, they are commonly referred to as todōfuken. Prefectures are governmental bodies larger than cities, towns, and villages. The chief executive of each prefecture is a directly elected governor .
The Standing Patrol for Emergency Assessment & Response (SPEAR) is an advisory unit activated for the purpose of rapidly providing relief authorities an estimate of the situation in disaster-affected areas. The Project was launched as a concept proposal by the Conceptium Group in 2004, an initiative taken by its founder, Stefan Templeton.