Soyuz 1 was a manned spaceflight of the Soviet space program. Launched into orbit on April 23, 1967 carrying cosmonaut Colonel Vladimir Komarov, Soyuz 1 was the first flight of the Soyuz spacecraft. Komarov was killed when the spacecraft crashed during its return to Earth after a mission beset with mechanical problems. This was the first confirmed in-flight fatality in the history of spaceflight.
Soyuz 5 was a Soyuz spacecraft launched by the Soviet Union on January 15, 1969, which docked with Soyuz 4 in orbit. It was the first-ever docking of two manned spacecraft, and the first-ever transfer of crew from one space vehicle to another, the only time a transfer was accomplished with a space walk. The flight was also memorable for its dramatic re-entry.
Soyuz 18 was a 1975 Soviet manned mission to Salyut 4, the second and final crew to man the space station. Pyotr Klimuk and Vitali Sevastyanov set a new Soviet space endurance record of 63 days and the mark for most people in space simultaneously (seven) was tied during the mission.
Soyuz 18a (also called Soyuz 18-1 and the April 5 Anomaly) was a manned Soyuz spacecraft launched by the Soviet Union in 1975, intended to dock with the orbiting Salyut 4 space station, but which failed to achieve orbit due to a serious malfunction during launch. The crew consisted of commander Vasili Lazarev, an Air Force major, and flight engineer Oleg Makarov, a civilian.
Soyuz 3 was the first manned launch of a Soyuz spacecraft after the accident that killed cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov. The ill-fated Soyuz 1 flight had been intended to rendezvous and dock with Soyuz 2. Soyuz 3, with cosmonaut Georgi Beregovoi aboard, became the second attempt to complete the mission. Ground controllers were able to bring the two spacecraft within 200 m (656 ft) of one another before Beregovoi took control of the Soyuz to complete the maneuver.
Soyuz 4 was launched on January 14, 1969. On board was cosmonaut Vladimir Shatalov on his first flight. The aim of the mission was to dock with Soyuz 5, transfer two crew members from that spacecraft, and return to Earth. The last three Soyuz flights had attempted this but all had failed for various reasons. The radio call sign of the crew was Amur, while Soyuz 5 was Baikal.
Soyuz 6 was part of a joint mission with Soyuz 7 and Soyuz 8 that saw three Soyuz spacecraft in orbit together at the same time, carrying seven cosmonauts. The crew of Georgi Shonin and Valeri Kubasov were meant to take high-quality movie photography of Soyuz 7 and Soyuz 8 docking but the rendezvous systems on all three spacecraft failed. It is still not known exactly what the actual problem was, but it is often quoted as being a helium pressurization integrity test.
Soyuz 7 was part of a joint mission with Soyuz 6 and Soyuz 8 that saw three Soyuz spacecraft in orbit together at the same time, carrying seven cosmonauts. The crew consisted of commander Anatoli Filipchenko, flight-engineer Vladislav Volkov and research-cosmonaut Viktor Gorbatko, whose mission was to dock with Soyuz 8 and transfer crew, as the Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5 missions did. Soyuz 6 was to film the operation from nearby. However, this objective was not achieved due to equipment failures.
Soyuz 8 was part of a joint mission with Soyuz 6 and Soyuz 7 that saw three Soyuz spacecraft in orbit together at the same time, carrying seven cosmonauts. The crew consisted of commander Vladimir Shatalov and flight-engineer Aleksei Yeliseyev, whose mission was to dock with Soyuz 7 and transfer crew, as the Soyuz Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5 missions did. Soyuz 6 was to film the operation from nearby. However, this objective was not achieved due to equipment failures.
Soyuz 9 was a 1970 Soviet manned space flight. The two-man crew of Andrian Nikolayev and Vitali Sevastyanov broke the five-year-old space endurance record with their nearly 18-day flight. The mission paved the way for the Salyut space station missions, investigating the effects of long-term weightlessness on crew, and evaluating the work that the cosmonauts could do in orbit, individually and as a team.
Kitbuqa Noyan (died 1260) was a Christian Turk belonging to the tribe of the Naimans, part of the Mongol Empire. He was a lieutenant and confidant of the Mongol Ilkhan Hulagu, assisting him in his conquests in the Middle East. When Hulagu withdrew the bulk of his forces, Kitbuqa was left in control of Syria, and was responsible for further Mongol raids southwards towards Egypt. He was killed at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260.
The Shen Gong Wu are fictional mystical artifacts possessing magical powers. They are featured in the animated series Xiaolin Showdown. When the name of a Shen Gong Wu is said resolutely, its powers can be used by the holder. The following Shen Gong Wu are listed in the order in which they were revealed in the television series.
Orłowice is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Mirsk, within Lwówek Śląski County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland, close to the Czech border. Prior to 1945 it was in Germany. It lies between Mirsk and Świeradów Zdrój, on the Kwisa river. Orłowice is approximately 7 kilometres (4 mi) south of Mirsk, 28 kilometres (17 mi) south-west of Lwówek Śląski, and 121 kilometres (75 mi) west of the regional capital Wrocław. The village has a population of 343.