Robert Bartholow or Roberts Bartholow (November 28, 1831 - 1904) was an American physician from New Windsor, Maryland. He earned his degree in medicine from the University of Maryland in 1852. From 1855-1864 he was a surgeon in the U.S. Army. From 1864-1879 he was a professor at the Medical College of Ohio in Cincinnati. Afterwards he was a professor at the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia. He is known for his application of Faradic electrical currents to the exposed dura of a patient.
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish theoretical physicist and mathematician. His most important achievement was classical electromagnetic theory, synthesizing all previously unrelated observations, experiments and equations of electricity, magnetism and even optics into a consistent theory.
James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831 – September 19, 1881) was the 20th President of the United States. His death, two months after being shot and six months after his inauguration, made his tenure, at 200 days, the second shortest in United States history. Before his election as president, Garfield served as a major general in the United States Army and as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, and as a member of the Electoral Commission of 1876. Garfield was the second U.S.
George Mortimer Pullman (March 3, 1831 – October 19, 1897) was an American inventor and industrialist. He is known as the inventor of the Pullman sleeping car, and for violently suppressing striking workers in the company town he created, Pullman (which was later annexed and absorbed by Chicago, becoming a neighborhood).
Julius Wilhelm Richard Dedekind (October 6, 1831 – February 12, 1916) was a German mathematician who did important work in abstract algebra, algebraic number theory and the foundations of the real numbers.
Heinrich Anton de Bary (January 26, 1831 – January 19, 1888) was a German surgeon, botanist, microbiologist, and mycologist. He is considered a founding father of plant pathology as well as the founder of modern mycology. His extensive and careful studies of the life history of fungi and contribution to the understanding of algae and higher plants were landmarks of biology.
Anna Leonowens (26 November 1831–19 January 1915) was a British travel writer, educator and social activist, known for working in Siam from 1862–1868, where she taught the wives and children of Mongkut, king of Siam. She is also known for co-founding the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design.
John Stith Pemberton (January 8, 1831 – August 16, 1888) was a Confederate veteran and an American druggist, and perhaps was best known for being the inventor of Coca-Cola, which in his lifetime was used only for medical purposes.
Lucy Ware Webb Hayes (August 28, 1831–June 25, 1889) was a First Lady of the United States and the wife of President Rutherford B. Hayes. While First Lady, she was given the moniker "Lemonade Lucy". Born in Chillicothe, Ohio, the daughter of James Webb, a physician, and Maria Cook-Webb, Lucy was descended from seven veterans of the American Revolution. Her father died when she was an infant. With her mother, she moved to Delaware, Ohio, where in 1847 she met Rutherford B. Hayes.
Dorothea Beale (21 March 1831 – 9 November 1906) was an English teacher. Born in Bishopsgate, England, she was the founder of St Hilda's College, Oxford. Her name is associated with that of Frances Buss in a satirical rhyme: Miss Buss and Miss Beale, Cupid's darts do not feel. How different from us, Miss Beale and Miss Buss. The lines refer to their unmarried state and their dedication to the cause of women's education.
Edward James Stone (February 28, 1831–May 6, 1897) was an English astronomer. He was born in Notting Hill, London to Roger and Elizabeth Stone. Educated at the City of London School, he obtained a studentship at King's College London, and in 1856 a scholarship at Queens' College, Cambridge where he graduated as fifth wrangler in 1859, and was immediately elected fellow of his college. The following year he succeeded the Rev.
Gekkota is an infraorder in the suborder Scleroglossa, comprising all geckos and the legless Pygopodidae. It is listed at ITIS, as a suborder of Squamata, and includes the families of Pygopodidae Boulenger, 1884, Eublepharidae, and Gekkonidae.
LS9, Inc is a biotechnology startup located in South San Francisco, specializing in the development of renewable biofuels using synthetic biology. Describing itself as being in the "prerevenue" stage,, it has received some $20m in funding from Khosla Ventures and Flagship Capital. LS9's CEO is Bill Haywood. Stephen del Cardayre is the vice president of research and development. LS9's products include "UltraClean fuels".