Epinephrine, widely called adrenaline, is a hormone and neurotransmitter. When produced in the body it increases heart rate, contracts blood vessels and dilates air passages and participates in the fight-or-flight response of the sympathetic nervous system. It is a catecholamine, a monoamine produced only by the adrenal glands from the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine.
Glycine (abbreviated as Gly or G) is an organic compound with the formula NH2CH2COOH. With only a hydrogen atom as its side chain, glycine is the smallest of the 20 amino acids commonly found in proteins. Glycine is a colourless, sweet-tasting crystalline solid. It is unique among the proteinogenic amino acids in that it is not chiral. It can fit into hydrophilic or hydrophobic environments, due to its single hydrogen atom side chain.
γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), also known as 4-hydroxybutanoic acid and sodium oxybate, is a naturally-occurring substance found in the central nervous system, wine, beef, small citrus fruits, and almost all animals in small amounts. It is also categorized as an illegal drug in many countries. It is currently regulated in Australia, Canada, most of Europe and in the US.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals which relay, amplify, and modulate signals between a neuron and another cell. Neurotransmitters are packaged into synaptic vesicles that cluster beneath the membrane on the presynaptic side of a synapse, and are released into the synaptic cleft, where they bind to receptors in the membrane on the postsynaptic side of the synapse.
Serotonin or 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter that is primarily found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and central nervous system (CNS) of humans and animals. Approximately 80 percent of the human body's total serotonin is located in the enterochromaffin cells in the gut, where it is used to regulate intestinal movements.
Dopamine is a catecholamine neurotransmitter that occurs in a wide variety of animals, including both vertebrates and invertebrates. In the brain, this phenethylamine functions as a neurotransmitter, activating the five types of dopamine receptors—D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5—and their variants. Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. Dopamine is also a neurohormone released by the hypothalamus.
Endorphins are endogenous opioid polypeptide compounds. They are produced by the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus in vertebrates during exercise, excitement, pain, consumption of spicy food and orgasm, and they resemble the opiates in their abilities to produce analgesia and a feeling of well-being. Endorphins work as "natural pain relievers.
Aspartic acid (abbreviated as Asp or D; Asx or B represent either aspartic acid or asparagine) is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CO2H. The carboxylate anion of aspartic acid is known as aspartate. The -isomer of aspartate is one of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids, i.e. , the building blocks of proteins. Its codons are GAU and GAC. Aspartic acid is, together with glutamic acid, classified as an acidic amino acid with a pKa of 4.0. Aspartate is pervasive in biosynthesis.
Glutamic acid (abbreviated as Glu or E) is one of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids, and its codons are GAA and GAG. It is a non-essential amino acid. The carboxylate anions and salts of glutamic acid are known as glutamates.
Anandamide, also known as N-arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA, is an endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitter found in animal and human organs, especially in the brain. It was isolated and its structure was first described by Czech analytical chemist Lumír Ondřej Hanuš and American molecular pharmacologist William Anthony Devane in the Laboratory of Raphael Mechoulam, at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Israel in 1992.