Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875) was the 17th President of the United States(1865–1869), and the last independent president. Following the assassination of President Lincoln, Johnson presided over the immediate aftermath of the American Civil War. At the time of the secession of the Southern states, Johnson was a U.S. Senator from Greeneville in East Tennessee. As a Unionist, he was the only southern senator not to quit his post upon secession.
Jefferson Finis Davis (June 3, 1808 – December 6, 1889) was an American military officer, statesman and leader of the Confederacy during the American Civil War, serving as the president of the Confederate States of America for its entire history, 1861 to 1865. A West Point graduate, Davis fought in the Mexican-American War as a colonel of a volunteer regiment, and was the United States secretary of war under Pres. Franklin Pierce.
Karl Andree (20 October 1808 – 10 August 1875) was a German geographer. Andree was born in Brunswick. He was educated at Jena, Göttingen, and Berlin. After having been implicated in a students' political agitation he became a journalist, and in 1851 founded the newspaper Bremer Handelsblatt. From 1855, however, he devoted himself entirely to geography and ethnography, working successively at Leipzig and at Dresden. In 1862 he founded the important geographical periodical Globus.
Napoleon III (20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873), also known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, né Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte, was the President of the French Second Republic and the ruler of the Second French Empire. He was also the nephew of Napoleon I. Elected President by popular vote in 1848, he undertook a coup d'état in 1851, becoming dictator before ascending to the throne as Napoleon III on 2 December 1852, the forty-eighth anniversary of Napoleon I's coronation.
Lysander Spooner (January 19, 1808 – May 14, 1887) was an American individualist anarchist, entrepreneur, political philosopher, abolitionist, supporter of the labor movement, and legal theorist of the nineteenth century. He is also known for competing with the U.S. Post Office with his American Letter Mail Company, which was forced out of business by the United States government.
Samson Raphael Hirsch (June 20 1808 – December 31 1888) was a German rabbi best known as the intellectual founder of the Torah im Derech Eretz school of contemporary Orthodox Judaism. Occasionally termed neo-Orthodoxy, his philosophy, together with that of Azriel Hildesheimer, has had a considerable influence on the development of Orthodox Judaism.
Michael William Balfe (15 May 1808 – 20 October 1870) was an Irish composer, best-remembered for his opera The Bohemian Girl. After a short career as a violinist, Balfe pursued an operatic singing career, while he began to compose. In a career spanning more than 40 years, he composed 38 operas, almost 250 songs and other works. He was also a noted conductor, directing Italian Opera at Her Majesty's Theatre for seven years, among other conducting posts.
Jules-Amédée Barbey d'Aurevilly (2 November 1808 – 23 April 1889) was a French novelist and short story writer. He specialised in mystery tales that explored hidden motivation and hinted at evil without being explicity concerned with anything supernatural. He had a decisive influence on writers such as Auguste Villiers de l'Isle-Adam, Henry James and Marcel Proust.
James Hall Nasmyth (sometimes spelled Naesmyth, Nasmith, or Nesmyth) (August 19, 1808 – May 7, 1890) was a Scottish engineer and inventor famous for his development of the steam hammer. He was the co-founder of Nasmyth, Gaskell and Company manufacturers of machine tools. He retired at the age of 48, and moved to Penshurst, Kent where he developed his hobbies of astronomy and photography.
Akita is the capital city of Akita Prefecture in the Tohoku region of Japan. As of June 1, 2007, with the merger of the former Kawabe District (including the former towns of Kawabe and Yūwa), the city has an estimated population of 336,250 and density of 364.6 inhabitants per square kilometre (944.3 /sq mi). The total area is 905.67 square kilometres (349.68 sq mi).
Paul-Émile Botta (December 6, 1802 – March 29, 1870) was French Consul in Mosul from 1842. Born in Torino, Italy, he excavated in Kuyundshik in 1842 and in Dur-Sharrukin in 1843. Botta believed Khorsabad to be the site of Niniveh. After he had cabled news of his discovery - "Niniveh est retrouvé" to Paris, the French government financed his excavations there. The artist Eugène Flandin was sent to Mesopotamia to document Botta's discoveries – fortunately, as it turned out.
Tsuga chinensis, commonly referred to as the Taiwan or Chinese Hemlock, or in Chinese as Tieshan, is a coniferous tree species native to China, Taiwan, Tibet and Vietnam. The tree is quite variable and has many recognised varieties, though some are also maintained to be separate species by certain authorities. The tree was recently discovered in the mountains of northern Vietnam, making that the southernmost extension of its range.