Brass is any alloy of copper and zinc; the proportions of zinc and copper can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties. In comparison, bronze is principally an alloy of copper and tin. Despite this distinction some types of brasses are called bronzes and vice-versa. Brass is a substitutional alloy.
Gilding metal is a copper alloy, comprising 95% copper and 5% zinc. Technically, it is a brass. Gilding metal is used for various purposes, including the jackets of bullets, driving bands on some artillery shells, as well as enameled badges and other jewellery.
Beryllium copper, also known as copper beryllium, BeCu or beryllium bronze, is a metal alloy of copper and 0.5 to 3% beryllium, and sometimes with other alloying elements. Beryllium Copper combines high strength with non-magnetic and non-sparking qualities. It has excellent metalworking, forming and machining qualities. It has many specialized applications in tools for hazardous environments, musical instruments, precision measurement devices, bullets, and aerospace.
Cupronickel or copper-nickel (sometimes incorrectly referred to as "cupernickel") is an alloy of copper that contains nickel and strengthening elements, such as iron and manganese. Cupronickel is highly resistant to corrosion in seawater, because its electrode potential is adjusted to be neutral with regard to seawater.
Nordic gold is the alloy from which the middle three denominations of euro coins, 50 cent, 20 cent, and 10 cent coins are made. It has also been in use for a number of years in other countries, most notably in the Swedish 10-krona coin . Its composition is 89% copper, 5% aluminium, 5% zinc, and 1% tin. It contains no gold — this is unlikely to cause many misleading trade descriptions since its colour and weight are quite unlike real gold.
Nickel silver is a metal alloy of copper with nickel and often but not always zinc. The usual formulation is 60% copper, 20% nickel and 20% zinc. It is named for its silvery appearance, but contains no elemental silver unless plated. Other common names for this alloy are German silver, paktong, new silver and alpacca (or alpaca).
Cunife is an alloy of copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), and in some cases cobalt (Co). The alloy has the same linear coefficient of expansion as certain types of glass, and thus makes an ideal material for the lead out wires in light bulbs and thermionic valves. It is magnetic and can be used for making magnets. Fernico exhibits a similar property. Cunife 1 consists of 60% Cu, 20% Ni, and 20% Fe. Cunife 2 consists of 60% Cu, 20% Ni, 2.5% Co, and 17.5% Fe.
Speculum metal is a mixture of around two-thirds copper and one-third tin making a white brittle alloy that can be polished to make a highly reflective surface. It is used primarily to make different kinds of mirrors including early reflecting telescope optical mirrors. Speculum metal can also be used as the metallic coating on glass mirrors (as opposed to silver or aluminium) giving a reflectivity of 68% at 6000 angstroms when evaporated onto the surface.
Phosphor bronze is an alloy of copper with 3.5 to 10% of tin and a significant phosphorus content of up to 1%. The phosphorus is added as deoxidizing agent during melting. These alloys are notable for their toughness, strength, low coefficient of friction, and fine grain. The phosphorus also improves the fluidity of the molten metal and thereby improves the castability, and improves mechanical properties by cleaning up the grain boundaries.