In chemistry, salts are ionic compounds which can result from the neutralization reaction of acids. Salts are ionic compounds composed of cations and anions (negative ions) so that the product is electrically neutral (without a net charge). These component ions can be inorganic such as chloride (Cl), as well as organic such as acetate (CH3COO) and monoatomic ions such as fluoride (F), as well as polyatomic ions such as sulfate (SO4). There are several varieties of salts.
Sulfuric acid (sulphuric acid in British English) is a strong mineral acid with the molecular formula H2SO4. It is soluble in water at all concentrations. Sulfuric acid has many applications, and is one of the top products of the chemical industry. World production in 2001 was 165 million tonnes, with an approximate value of US$8 billion.
Chalk is a soft, white, porous sedimentary rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite. It forms under relatively deep marine conditions from the gradual accumulation of minute calcite plates shed from micro-organisms called coccolithophores. It is common to find chert nodules embedded in chalk. Chalk can also refer to other compounds including magnesium silicate and calcium sulfate.
The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, is an iron sulfide with the formula FeS2. This mineral's metallic luster and pale-to-normal, brass-yellow hue have earned it the nickname fool's gold due to its resemblance to gold. The color has also led to the nicknames brass, brazzle and brazil, primarily used to refer to pyrite found in coal. Pyrite is the most common of the sulfide minerals. The name pyrite is derived from the Greek πυρίτης (puritēs), “of fire” or "in fire”, from πύρ (pur), “fire”.
Cinnabar,, is the common ore of mercury. The name comes from κινναβαρι (kinnabari), a Greek word most likely applied by Theophrastus to several distinct substances. Other sources say the word comes from the Persian زینجیفرح zinjifrah, a word of uncertain origin. In Latin it was sometimes known as minium, meaning also "red lead", though both of these terms now refer uniquely to lead tetroxide.
Aqua regia or aqua regis (Latin for royal water or king's water) is a highly corrosive, fuming yellow or red solution, also called nitro-hydrochloric acid. The mixture is formed by freshly mixing concentrated nitric acid and concentrated hydrochloric acid, usually in a volumetric ratio of 1:3 respectively. It was named so because it can dissolve the so-called "royal metals," or noble metals, gold and platinum.
Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime, is a widely used chemical compound. It is a white, caustic and alkaline crystalline solid at room temperature. As a commercial product, lime often also contains magnesium oxide, silicon oxide and smaller amounts of aluminium oxide and iron oxide. Calcium oxide is usually made by the thermal decomposition of materials such as limestone, that contain calcium carbonate in a lime kiln.
The philosophers' stone is a legendary alchemical substance, supposedly capable of turning base metals, especially lead, into gold; it was also sometimes believed to be an elixir of life, useful for rejuvenation and possibly for achieving immortality. For a long time, it was the most sought-after goal in Western alchemy, meditated upon by alchemists like Sir Isaac Newton, Nicolas Flamel, and Frater Albertus.
Silver nitrate is an inorganic compound with chemical formula AgNO3. This compound is a versatile precursor to many other silver compounds, such as those used in photography. It is far less sensitive to light than the halides. It was once called "lunar caustic" because silver was called luna by the ancient alchemists. In solid silver nitrate, the silver ions are three-coordinated in a trigonal planar arrangement.
Judas Priest are a Grammy Award winning English heavy metal band from Birmingham, formed in 1969. Judas Priest's core line-up consists of vocalist Rob Halford, lead and rhythm guitarists Glenn Tipton, and K.K. Downing, and also bassist Ian Hill. The band has gone through several drummers, though Scott Travis has held the position since 1989. They have been cited as an influence on many heavy metal musicians and bands.
In Mormonism, the Adam–God theory (also called the Adam–God doctrine) was a doctrine taught by Brigham Young and other early leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) involving the status of Adam as a god prior to his appearance in the Garden of Eden. During the life of Brigham Young, elements of the Adam–God theory were taught in church meetings, sung in church hymns, and included in the church's Endowment ceremony.
Dudley Hollingsworth Bowen Jr. (born 1941) is a United States federal judge on the United States District Court for the Southern District of Georgia. Bowen was born in Augusta, Georgia, the son of the owner of a local hardware business. He received an A.B. from the University of Georgia in 1964 and an LL.B. from the University of Georgia School of Law in 1965. Bowen served as a Lieutenant, Infantry, in the United States Army from 1966 to 1968.