Section Twelve of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, as part of the Charter and of the Constitution of Canada, is a legal rights section that protects an individual's freedom from cruel and unusual punishments in Canada. The section has generated some case law, including the essential case R. v. Smith (1987), in which it was partially defined, and R. v.
Pemzashen is a town in the Shirak Province of Armenia. The town was founded in 1915 by survivors of the Armenian Genocide from Mush and Basen. During the Soviet era a sewing factory, construction materials plant, and a parts factory to supply hydro-electric stations were based out of Pemzashen. After the collapse of the USSR, most of the town's residents have found themselves out of work and many of the men have moved to Russia to find jobs.