Miraculin is a glycoprotein extracted from the fruit of the miracle fruit plant (Synsepalum dulcificum or Richadella dulcifica). Miraculin itself is not sweet. However, after the taste buds are exposed to miraculin, ordinarily sour foods, such as citrus, are perceived as sweet. This effect lasts up to an hour. The active substance, isolated by Prof.
Aspartame (or APM) is the name for an artificial, non-saccharide sweetener used as a sugar substitute in many foods and beverages. In the European Union, it is known under the E number (additive code) E951. Aspartame is the methyl ester of a phenylalanine/aspartic acid dipeptide. Aspartame was first synthesized in 1965. Its use in food products was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 1980.
Glucose (Glc), a simple sugar also known as grape sugar, blood sugar, or corn sugar, is an important carbohydrate in biology. Cells use it as a source of energy and metabolic intermediate. Glucose is one of the main products of photosynthesis and starts cellular respiration in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Starch and cellulose are complex sugars and polymers of glucose.
Honey is a sweet food made by certain insects using nectar from flowers. The variety produced by honey bees is the one most commonly referred to and is the type of honey collected by beekeepers and consumed by humans. Honey produced by other bees and insects has distinctly different properties. Honey bees form nectar into honey by a process of regurgitation and store it as a food source in wax honeycombs inside the beehive.
Lactose is a sugar that is found most notably in milk. Lactose makes up around 2–8% of milk (by weight), although the amount varies among species and individuals. It is extracted from sweet or sour whey. The name comes from lacte, the Latin word for milk, plus the -ose ending used to name sugars.
Malting is a process applied to cereal grains, in which the grains are made to germinate by soaking in water and are then quickly halted from germinating further by drying/heating with hot air. Thus, malting is a combination of two processes: the sprouting process and the kiln-drying process. These latter terms are often preferred when referring to the field of brewing for batches of beer or other beverages as they provide more specific information.
Stevia is a genus of about 240 species of herbs and shrubs in the sunflower family, native to subtropical and tropical regions from western North America to South America. The species Stevia rebaudiana, commonly known as sweetleaf, sweet leaf, sugarleaf, or simply stevia, is widely grown for its sweet leaves.
Sucralose is a zero-calorie sugar substitute artificial sweetener. In the European Union, it is also known under the E number (additive code) E955. Sucralose is approximately 600 times as sweet as sucrose (table sugar), twice as sweet as saccharin, and 3.3 times as sweet as aspartame. Unlike aspartame, it is stable under heat and over a broad range of pH conditions. Therefore, it can be used in baking or in products that require a longer shelf life.
Splenda is a sucralose-based artificial sweetener marketed initially in North America. Since its United States introduction in 1999, sucralose has overtaken Equal in the $1.5 billion artificial sweetener market, holding a 62% market share. According to market research firm IRI, as reported in the Wall Street Journal, Splenda sold $212 million in 2006 in the U.S. while Equal sold $48.7 million. Its patent is owned by the British company Tate & Lyle.
Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ), a member of the Chenopodiaceae family, is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose. It is grown commercially for sugar production. The sugar comes from the bulb of the beetroot plant, chard and fodder beet, all descended by cultivation from the sea beet. The European Union, the United States, and Russia are the world's three largest sugar beet producers, although only the European Union and Ukraine are significant exporters of sugar from beets.
The user illusion is the illusion created for the user by a human-computer interface, for example the visual metaphor of a desktop used in many graphical user interfaces. The term originated at Xerox PARC. Some philosophers of mind have argued that consciousness is a form of user illusion. This notion is explored by Tor Nørretranders in his 1991 Danish book Mærk verden, issued in a 1998 English edition as The User Illusion: Cutting Consciousness Down to Size.
Thimphu ཐིམ་ཕུ་རྫོང་ཁག་ is a dzongkhag (district) of Bhutan. It is also the capital of Bhutan and the largest city in the whole kingdom. Thimphu dzongkhag is divided into ten gewogs and one town: Gewogs: Bapbi Gewog Chang Gewog Dagala Gewog Genyekha Gewog Kawang Gewog Lingzhi Gewog Mewang Gewog Naro Gewog Soe Gewog Toepisa Gewog Town: Thimphu Lingzhi, Soe and Naro Gewogs belong to the Lingzhi Dungkhag subdistrict, the only subdistrict within Thimphu District.