John Knox (c. 1510 – 24 November 1572) was a Scottish clergyman and leader of the Protestant Reformation who is considered the founder of the Presbyterian denomination. He was educated at the University of St Andrews and worked as a notary-priest. Influenced by early church reformers such as George Wishart, he joined the movement to reform the Scottish church.
Aloysius Lilius (c. 1510 – 1576), also variously referred to as Luigi Lilio, Luigi Giglio, or Aluise Baldassar Lilio, was an Italian doctor, astronomer, philosopher and chronologist, and also the "primary author" who provided the proposal that (after modifications) became the basis of the Gregorian Calendar reform of 1582. The crater Lilius on the Moon is named after him.
Catherine Parr (c.1512 – 5 September 1548) was the last of the six wives of Henry VIII of England. She was queen consort of England in 1543–1547, then Dowager Queen of England. She was the most-married English Queen, with four husbands. Catherine Parr was born at Kendal Castle in Westmorland, North West England, where her ancestors had resided since the fourteenth century.
Mikael Agricola (c. 1510 – 9 April 1557) was a clergyman who became the de facto founder of written Finnish and a prominent proponent of the Protestant Reformation in Sweden. He is often called the "father of the Finnish written language". Agricola was consecrated as the bishop of Turku (Åbo) in 1554 without papal approval. As a result, he began a reform of the Finnish church (then a part of the Church of Sweden) along Lutheran lines.
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado y Luján (1510 – 22 September 1554) was a Spanish conquistador, who visited New Mexico and other parts of what are now the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542. Coronado had hoped to conquer the mythical Seven Cities of Gold.
Sir Jacobus van Meteren was the financier and printer of early English versions of the Bible. He was involved in the printing of an edition of Tyndale's New Testament in 1535 (Herbert #15). The Coverdale Bible of 1535 (Herbert #18) may also have been his work. He may also have printed the Matthew Bible of 1537 (Herbert #34), the combined work of William Tyndale, Myles Coverdale and John Rogers. It is unknown if he was the only financier, printer or publisher of these works, or one of several.
Lope de Aguirre (c. 1510 – 27 October 1561) was a Spanish Basque conquistador in South America. Nicknamed El Loco, 'the Madman', Aguirre was renowned for his treacherous and brutal exploits. He participated and eventually led an expedition down the Amazon river in search of the mythical El Dorado. He rebelled against and defied the Spanish monarch Philip II, before being defeated and slain.