The aurochs or urus (Bos primigenius), the ancestor of domestic cattle, was a type of huge wild cattle which inhabited Europe, Asia and North Africa, but is now extinct; it survived in Europe until 1627. The aurochs was far larger than most modern domestic cattle with a shoulder height of 2 metres (6.6 ft) and weighing 1,000 kilograms (2,200 lb). Domestication occurred in several parts of the world at roughly the same time, about 8,000 years ago.
The quagga (Equus quagga quagga) is an extinct subspecies of the Plains zebra, which was once found in great numbers in South Africa's Cape Province and the southern part of the Orange Free State. It was distinguished from other zebras by having the usual vivid marks on the front part of the body only. In the mid-section, the stripes faded and the dark, inter-stripe spaces became wider, and the rear parts were a plain brown.
Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) is a large extinct sirenian mammal. Formerly abundant throughout the North Pacific, its range was limited to a single, isolated population on the uninhabited Commander Islands by 1741 when it was first described by Georg Wilhelm Steller, chief naturalist on an expedition led by explorer Vitus Bering. Within 27 years of discovery by Europeans, the slow moving and easily captured Steller's sea cow was hunted to extinction.
Tarpan (Equus ferus ferus, also known as Eurasian wild horse) is an extinct subspecies of wild horse. The last individual of this subspecies died in captivity in Russia in 1909. Beginning in the 1930s, several attempts have been made to re-create the tarpan through selective breeding.
The Ancient Egyptian cattle Bos aegyptiacus (name not recognized by ITIS) was a domesticated form of ox of uncertain origin. The earliest evidence of Bos aegyptiacus is from the Fayum region, dating back to the 8th millennium BC. Unlike other species of ox, B. aegyptiacus did not have a hump. It had either large widespread horns, which arched first inward and then outward or shorter horns which had the same structure. According to Egyptian art, B.
The Sardinian Pika (Prolagus sardus) was a pika native to the Mediterranean islands of Sardinia and Corsica until its extinction in the late 1700s or early 1800s. It was described by early Sardinian authors as "a giant rabbit with no tail", and it is believed that the Nuragici, the ancient peoples of Sardinia, viewed them as a delicacy. The Corsican Pika (formerly Prolagus corsicanus) is now considered to be conspecific with this species.
Saber-toothed cat refers to extinct subfamilies of Machairodontinae, Barbourofelidae, and Nimravidae (Feliformia) as well as two marsupial families that were found worldwide from the Eocene-Pleistocene epochs (42 mya—11,000 years ago), existing for approximately 42 million years. The Nimravidae are the oldest entering the landscape around 42 mya and becoming extinct by 7.2 mya. Barbourofelidae entered around 16.9 mya and were extinct by 9 mya. These two would have shared some habitats.
A large number of prehistoric mammals are extinct, e.g. Megafauna. See List of prehistoric mammals. This is an incomplete list of historically known extinct mammals, their dates of extinction, and former range. Mammals included are organisms which have been described by science, but which have subsequently become extinct. Many of these animals have become extinct as a result of human hunting, for food or sport, or through the destruction of habitat.
The Sea Mink, Neovison macrodon, is an extinct North American member of the Mustelidae family. It is the only mustelid, and one of two terrestrial mammal species in the order Carnivora to have gone extinct in historic times, along with the Falkland Islands Wolf. The body of the sea mink was significantly longer than the closely related American Mink (N. vison), and also bulkier, leading to a pelt that was almost twice the size of the other species.
The Caribbean Monk Seal or West Indian Monk Seal (Monachus tropicalis) is an extinct species of seal. It is the only seal ever known to be native to the Caribbean sea and the Gulf of Mexico. The last verified recorded sighting occurred in 1952 at Serranilla Bank. On June 6, 2008, after five years of futile efforts to find or confirm sightings of any Caribbean monk seals, the U.S. government announced that the species is officially extinct and the only seal to vanish due to human causes.
Book of the Civilized Man by Daniel of Beccles . Also known as Liber Urbani or Urbanus Magnus or Civilized Man. It is believed to be the first English courtesy book (or book of manners), dating probably from the beginning of the thirteenth century. The book is significant because in the later Middle Ages dozens of such courtesy books were produced, indeed courtesy books have a long history in ancient and modern history.
An excise or excise tax (sometimes called a duty of excise or a special tax) may be defined broadly as an inland tax on the production or sale of a good, or narrowly as a tax on a good produced within the country. Excises are distinguished from customs duties, which are taxes on importation. Excises, whether broadly defined or narrowly defined, are inland taxes, whereas customs duties are border taxes.