The Phobos program was an unmanned space mission consisting of two probes launched by the Soviet Union to study Mars and its moons Phobos and Deimos. Phobos 2 became a Mars orbiter and returned 38 images with a resolution of up to 40 meters. Both probes suffered from critical failures. Phobos 1 and 2 were of a new spacecraft design, succeeding the type used in the Venera planetary missions of 1975-1985, last used during the Vega 1 and Vega 2 missions to comet Halley.
The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF) is a 1987 agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union. Signed in Washington, D.C. by U.S. President Ronald Reagan and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev on December 8, 1987, it was ratified by the United States Senate on May 27, 1988 and came into force on June 1 of that year.
STS-26 was the 26th Space Shuttle mission and the seventh flight for Discovery, launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida. It was the "Return to Flight" mission, being the first mission after the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster. This was the first mission to use the original Space Transportation System numbering system since STS-9, and the first to have all crew members wearing pressure suits for launch and landing since STS-4.
STS-27 was a space shuttle mission by NASA using the Space Shuttle Atlantis. It was the 27th shuttle mission, and the 3rd for Atlantis, 2nd after the Challenger disaster. It carried a classified payload for the U.S. Department of Defense.
The Spitak Earthquake (also called Leninakan Earthquake and Gyumri Earthquake) was a tremor with a magnitude of 6.9, that took place on December 7, 1988 at 11:41 local time in the Spitak region of Armenia, then part of the Soviet Union. The earthquake killed at least 25,000 people; geologists and earthquake engineering experts laid the blame on the poorly built support structures of apartments and other buildings built during the "stagnation" era of Leonid Brezhnev.
The Soviet Union (USSR) competed, for the last time before its dissolution, at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul. Athletes from 12 of the ex-Soviet republics would compete as the Unified Team at the 1992 Summer Olympics, and each nation would field independent teams in subsequent Games.
The Soviet Law on Cooperatives, enacted in May 1988, was perhaps the most radical of the economic reforms during the early part of the Gorbachev era. For the first time since Vladimir Lenin's New Economic Policy, the law permitted private ownership of businesses in the services, manufacturing, and foreign-trade sectors. The law initially imposed high taxes and employment restrictions, but it later revised these to avoid discouraging private-sector activity.
The Geneva Accords, known formally as the agreements on the settlement of the situation relating to Afghanistan, were signed on 14 April 1988 between Afghanistan and Pakistan, with the United States and the Soviet Union serving as guarantors.
Charles Victor de Bonstetten (September 3, 1745, Bern – February 3, 1832), was a Swiss liberal writer. By birth a member of one of the great patrician families of Bern, he was educated in his native town, at Yverdon, and (1763-1766) at Geneva, where he came under the influence of Rousseau and of Charles Bonnet, and imbibed liberal sentiments. Recalled to Bern by his father, he was soon sent to Leiden, and then visited (1769) England, where he became a friend of the poet Gray.
Kshanti or kṣanti' or khanti has been translated as patience, forbearance and forgiveness. It is one of the practices of perfection of both Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism. Kshanti is the practice of exercising patience toward behavior or situations that might not necessarily deserve it — it is seen as a conscious choice to actively give patience as if a gift, rather than being in a state of oppression in which one feels obligated to act in such a way.
Hampton Court House is an independent school for boys and girls aged between three and eighteen. The school is based in and takes its name from the house overlooking Bushy Park and adjacent to Hampton Court Palace which George Montagu-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax built in 1756 for his mistress. The headmistress is Eliana Housten-Boswall, who had previously co-founded The Harrodian School.