The term Spaceguard loosely refers to a number of efforts to discover and study near-Earth objects (NEO). Arthur C. Clarke coined the term in his novel Rendezvous with Rama where SPACEGUARD was the name of an early warning system created following a catastrophic asteroid impact. This name was later adopted by a number of real life efforts to discover and study near-Earth objects.
The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was the first-ever space-based observatory to perform a survey of the entire sky at infrared wavelengths. Launched on January 25, 1983, its mission lasted ten months. The telescope was a joint project of the United States, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom.
Observations for the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) began in 1997 and were completed in 2001 at two telescopes located one each in the northern and southern hemispheres to ensure coverage of the entire sky. The most ambitious project to map the night sky to date, the final (post-processing) data release for 2MASS occurred in 2003. The whole sky was covered using photometric system of three infrared wavebands around 2 micrometres (m): J (1.25 m), H (1.65 m), and Ks (2.17 m).
The LIncoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) project is a cooperative project between the United States Air Force, NASA, and MIT's Lincoln Laboratory for the systematic discovery and tracking of near-Earth asteroids. LINEAR was responsible for the majority of asteroid detections since 1998 until overtaken by the Catalina Sky Survey. As of December 31, 2007, LINEAR had detected 226,193 new objects of which at least 2019 were near-Earth asteroids and 236 were comets.
Catalina Sky Survey is a project to discover comets and asteroids, and to search for Near-Earth objects. More specifically, to search for potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs), that may pose a threat of impact.
The Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES) is a project to find Kuiper belt objects (KBOs), using the facilities of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). The principal investigator is Bob Millis. Since 1998 through the end of 2003, the survey covered 550 square degrees with sensitivity of 22.5. I.e. , an estimated 50% of objects of this magnitude have been found.
The Asiago-DLR Asteroid Survey (ADAS) is a project to search for comets and asteroids, with special emphasis on near-Earth objects. It is a joint venture between the Department of Astronomy of the University of Padua (using the Schmidt telescope at Asiago-CimaEkar) and the DLR - Institute of Space Sensor Technology and Planetary Exploration at Berlin-Adlershof, Germany. DLR stands for Deutschen Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, the German Aerospace Center.
The OCA-DLR Asteroid Survey (ODAS) was a European scientific project to search for asteroids and comets. This project was the joint work of the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (OCA) in France and the Deutschen Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) in Germany. They operated in cooperation with a global effort regarding Near-Earth objects that was begun by the Working Group on Near-Earth Objects, a component of the International Astronomical Union.
Radiolarians (also radiolaria) are amoeboid protozoa that produce intricate mineral skeletons, typically with a central capsule dividing the cell into inner and outer portions, called endoplasm and ectoplasm. They are found as zooplankton throughout the ocean, and their skeletal remains cover large portions of the ocean bottom as radiolarian ooze. Due to their rapid turn-over of species, they represent an important diagnostic fossil found from the Cambrian onwards.
Tyholttårnet is a 124 metre high radio tower with an observation deck at Trondheim, Norway. Tyholttårnet was built in 1985. The tower features a revolving restaurant, 80 metres up, which makes one complete revolution per hour.
Kaʻū is the southernmost district on the island of Hawaiʻi. It includes the areas of South Point (Ka Lae), Hawaiian Ocean View Estates (HOVE), Hawaiian Ocean View Ranchos (HOVR), now together known as Ocean View, Nīnole, Waiʻōhinu, Naʻālehu and Pāhala. The district contains much of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, including the volcanoes Kīlauea and Mauna Loa, and Punaluʻu Black Sand Beach and Kamilo Beach.
Arne Andersson (October 27, 1917 – April 1, 2009) was a Swedish middle distance runner who became famous for his rivalry with his compatriot Gunder Hägg in the 1940s. Andersson set a 1500 metres world record in Gothenburg in August 1943 with a time of 3:45.0 min. He was born in Trollhättan, Sweden. Andersson set three world records for the Mile: the first in Stockholm in July 1942 in; this record was broken in the same year by Hägg .