Carmen Mauri (song of a Maur) is an anonymous Polish medieval poem written in Latin. It tells the story of Polish magnate Piotr Włast and his rebellion against Prince Władysław Wygnaniec. The poem has survived only in fragmentary form. Its author and exact date of creation is unknown, it is presumed that the author was a Benedictine monk and the poem was written between the second half of the 12th century and the beginning of the 14th century.
"Dagome iudex" is the name applied to one of the earliest documents believed to relate to Poland. "Poland" is not mentioned by that name, but reference is made to Dagome and Ote and their sons in 991, placing their territory (the "state in whole which is called Schinesghe") under the protection of the Apostolic See. The document's name derives from two of its opening words.
The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were crusades undertaken by the Christian kings of Denmark and Sweden, the German Livonian and Teutonic military orders, and their allies against the pagan peoples of Northern Europe around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea. Swedish and German Catholic campaigns against Russian Eastern Orthodox Christians are also sometimes considered part of the Northern Crusades.
The Piast dynasty was the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland. It began with the semi-legendary Piast Kołodziej (Piast the Wheelwright). The first historical ruler was Duke Mieszko I (10th cent.). The Piasts royal rule in Poland ended in 1370 with the death of king Casimir the Great. Branches of the Piasts dynasty continued to rule in the Duchy of Masovia and in the duchies of Silesia after 1370, until the last Silesian Piast died in 1675.
The Congress of Gniezno took place on March 11, 1000. Scholars disagree over the details of the decisions made at the meeting, especially whether the ruler of Poland was pledged the king's crown or not. After his death in 997 AD during a mission in pagan Prussia, Adalbert of Prague was soon made a saint by the common effort of Boleslaus I of Poland and Otto III. Thus, Adalbert was the first Slavic bishop who became a saint.
In the first centuries of its existence, the Polish nation, one of its early names was Civitas Schinesghe as recorded in the Dagome iudex, was led by a series of strong rulers who converted the Poles to Christianity, created a strong Central European state, and integrated Poland into European culture.
The Peace of Bautzen was a peace treaty signed by Emperor Henry II and Great Duke Bolesław I the Brave of Poland on 30 January 1018. The peace, achieved at the Ortenburg castle in Bautzen, ended 15 years of warfare between the two rulers, as well as ending negotiations Henry had begun in 1003 with the heathen Liutizians. Because of the recurring warfare since the Peace of Merseburg in 1013, Henry desired peace with Poland.
The Kingdom of Poland was the Polish state from the coronation of the first King for one year Bolesław I the Brave in 1025. Three more short-term attempts followed and actual kings started with Przemysl II in 1295 to the union with Lithuania and the rule of the Jagiellon dynasty in 1385.
Veche was a popular assembly in medieval Slavic countries, and in late medieval period. Veche can be compared to the ecclesia of Classical Athens and other Old Greek polises. The word is inherited from Proto-Slavic *větje, meaning 'council' or 'talk' (which is also represented in the word "soviet", both ultimately deriving from Proto-Slavic verbal stem of *větiti 'to talk, speak'). The semantic derivation that yields the meaning of the word under consideration is parallel to that of parliament.
The Order of Dobrzyń or Order of Dobrin, also known as the Brothers of Dobrzyń, was a military order created in the borderland of Masovia and Prussia during the 13th century Prussian Crusade to 'defend against Baltic Prussian raids'. In Latin the knights were known as the Fratres Milites Christi (de Prussia, de Dobrin, de Dobrzyń, de Mazovia), and they were nicknamed the Prussian Cavaliers of Jesus Christ.
The Gallienus usurpers were the usurpers who claimed imperial power during the reign of Gallienus (253–268, the first part of which he shared with his father Valerian). The existence of usurpers during the Crisis of the Third Century was very common, and the high number of usurpers fought by Gallienus is due to his long rule; 15 years was a long reign by the standards of the 3rd century Roman Empire.