The term Spaceguard loosely refers to a number of efforts to discover and study near-Earth objects (NEO). Arthur C. Clarke coined the term in his novel Rendezvous with Rama where SPACEGUARD was the name of an early warning system created following a catastrophic asteroid impact. This name was later adopted by a number of real life efforts to discover and study near-Earth objects.
The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was the first-ever space-based observatory to perform a survey of the entire sky at infrared wavelengths. Launched on January 25, 1983, its mission lasted ten months. The telescope was a joint project of the United States, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom.
Observations for the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) began in 1997 and were completed in 2001 at two telescopes located one each in the northern and southern hemispheres to ensure coverage of the entire sky. The most ambitious project to map the night sky to date, the final (post-processing) data release for 2MASS occurred in 2003. The whole sky was covered using photometric system of three infrared wavebands around 2 micrometres (m): J (1.25 m), H (1.65 m), and Ks (2.17 m).
The LIncoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) project is a cooperative project between the United States Air Force, NASA, and MIT's Lincoln Laboratory for the systematic discovery and tracking of near-Earth asteroids. LINEAR was responsible for the majority of asteroid detections since 1998 until overtaken by the Catalina Sky Survey. As of December 31, 2007, LINEAR had detected 226,193 new objects of which at least 2019 were near-Earth asteroids and 236 were comets.
Catalina Sky Survey is a project to discover comets and asteroids, and to search for Near-Earth objects. More specifically, to search for potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs), that may pose a threat of impact.
The Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES) is a project to find Kuiper belt objects (KBOs), using the facilities of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). The principal investigator is Bob Millis. Since 1998 through the end of 2003, the survey covered 550 square degrees with sensitivity of 22.5. I.e. , an estimated 50% of objects of this magnitude have been found.
The Asiago-DLR Asteroid Survey (ADAS) is a project to search for comets and asteroids, with special emphasis on near-Earth objects. It is a joint venture between the Department of Astronomy of the University of Padua (using the Schmidt telescope at Asiago-CimaEkar) and the DLR - Institute of Space Sensor Technology and Planetary Exploration at Berlin-Adlershof, Germany. DLR stands for Deutschen Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, the German Aerospace Center.
The OCA-DLR Asteroid Survey (ODAS) was a European scientific project to search for asteroids and comets. This project was the joint work of the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (OCA) in France and the Deutschen Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) in Germany. They operated in cooperation with a global effort regarding Near-Earth objects that was begun by the Working Group on Near-Earth Objects, a component of the International Astronomical Union.
BATTeRS (バッターズ) stands for Bisei Asteroid Tracking Telescope for Rapid Survey. It is a Japanese project to find asteroids. It is associated with the Japanese Spaceguard Association. Members include Takeshi Urata. The project has discovered numerous asteroids. It has also discovered the comet C/2001 W2 (BATTERS), later reclassified as periodic.
Frederick Jacob Titus Chiluba (born April 30, 1943) is a Zambian politician who was the second President of Zambia from 1991 to 2002. Chiluba, a trade union leader, won the country's multi-party presidential election in 1991 as the candidate of the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD), defeating long-time President Kenneth Kaunda. He was re-elected in 1996. Unable to run for a third term in 2001, former Vice President Levy Mwanawasa instead ran as the MMD candidate and succeeded him.
Antero Pertti Elias Niittymäki (born 18 June 1980) is a Finnish professional ice hockey goaltender. Currently a member of the Tampa Bay Lightning, he has played the majority of his career for the Philadelphia Flyers of the National Hockey League (NHL). He has previously played in the SM-liiga and the American Hockey League. At the 2006 Winter Olympics, while playing for Team Finland, he was voted the MVP of the entire ice hockey tournament.
Dark Passion Play is the sixth studio album by Finnish symphonic power metal quintet Nightwish, released on September 26, 2007 in Finland, September 28 in Europe and October 2, 2007 in the United States. It was the first Nightwish album with the band's new lead singer, Anette Olzon, and the first album not featuring former vocalist Tarja Turunen, who was dismissed in October 2005. Lead songwriter Tuomas Holopainen has referred to it as the 'album that saved his life'.
Donald Gilbert Joyce (born October 8, 1929 in Steubenville, Ohio) is a former American football defensive end in the National Football League (NFL) and the American Football League (AFL). He played for the NFL's Chicago Cardinals (1951-1953), the Baltimore Colts (1954-1960), and the Minnesota Vikings (1961). He played for the AFL's Denver Broncos (1962). He was selected to the Pro Bowl after the 1958 season. Joyce was a professional wrestler in the off-season.