This list of Anuran families shows all extant families of Anura. Anura is an order of animals in the class Amphibia that includes frogs and toads. There are around 5,280 species currently described in the order. The living Anurans are typically divided into three suborders: Archaeobatrachia, Mesobatrachia and Neobatrachia. This classification is based on such morphological features as the number of vertebrae, the structure of the pectoral girdle, and the morphology of tadpoles.
Frogs are amphibians in the order Anura (meaning "tail-less", from Greek an-, without + oura, tail), formerly referred to as Salientia (Latin salere, "to jump"). Most frogs are characterized by long hind legs, a short body, webbed digits (fingers or toes), protruding eyes and the absence of a tail. Frogs are widely known as exceptional jumpers, and many of the anatomical characteristics of frogs, particularly their long, powerful legs, are adaptations to improve jumping performance.
Amplexus (Latin "embrace") is a form of pseudocopulation in which a male amphibian grasps a female with his front legs as part of the mating process. At the same time or with some time delay, he fertilizes the female eggs with fluid containing sperm. Amplexus chiefly occurs aquatically, but some more terrestrial anurans like the disc-tongued frogs perform amplexus on land.
Dramatic declines in amphibian populations, including population crashes and mass localized extinctions, have been noted since the 1980s from locations all over the world. These declines are perceived as one of the most critical threats to global biodiversity, and several causes are believed to be involved, including disease, habitat destruction and modification, exploitation, pollution, pesticide use, introduced species, climate change, and increased ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B).
Archaeobatrachia is a suborder of Anura containing various primitive frogs and toads. As the name literally suggests, these are the most primitive frogs. Many of the species (28 in total) show certain physiological characteristics which are not present in other frogs and toads, thus giving rise to this group. They are largely found in Eurasia, New Zealand, the Philippines and Borneo, and are characteristically small.
Neobatrachia are a suborder of the Anura, the order of frogs and toads. This suborder is the the most advanced and apomorphic of the three anuran orders alive today; hence its name, which literally means "new frogs". It is also by far the largest of the three; its more than 5,000 different species make up over 96% of all living anurans.
Grass frogs is a catch-all term for a wide range of fairly unrelated frogs. The species referred to as "grass frogs" are typically medium-sized Neobatrachia that live in or near small rivers, lakes or ponds in grassland habitat, with a greenish to brownish back that often carries yellowish or blackish stripes or dots for good camouflage. Though among their relatives there are frogs that climb well, "grass frogs" are hardly ever found to climb trees.
Glass frog (or Glassfrogs) is the common/popular name for the frogs of the amphibian family Centrolenidae. While the general background coloration of most glass frogs is primarily lime green, the abdominal skin of some members of this family is transparent. The internal viscera, including the heart, liver, and gastrointestinal tract are visible through this translucent skin, hence the common name.
Craspedodon (meaning 'edge tooth') is an extinct genus of ornithischian dinosaur, possibly a ceratopsian. It lived during the Late Cretaceous, in what is now Belgium. Only a few teeth have ever been found, which were described as similar to those of Iguanodon. Craspedodon lonzeensis, described by Louis Dollo in 1883, is the type species, although it is considered a nomen dubium since it is based on fragmentary material (teeth only).
Gold plating may refer to: Gilding, various traditional methods of depositing a thin layer of gold on the surface of other materials in goldsmithing, jewellery, furniture etc. Gold plating, various methods of depositing a thin layer of gold on the surface of other metals in the modern electronics industry. Gold-plating, the practise of national bodies exceeding the terms of European Community directives when implementing them into national law.
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