The Finlandia Hymn refers to a serene hymn-like section of the patriotic symphonic poem Finlandia, written in 1899 and 1900 by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius. It was later re-worked by the composer into a stand-alone piece. With words written in 1941 by Veikko Antero Koskenniemi, the Finlandia Hymn is one of the most important national songs of Finland.
The Swan of Tuonela (Tuonelan joutsen) is an 1895 tone poem by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius. The story behind it is an excerpted legend from the Kalevala epic of Finnish mythology. The tone poem is scored for a small orchestra of oboe, cor anglais, bass clarinet, bassoon, 4 horns, 3 trombones, timpani, bass drum, harp, and divisi strings. The cor anglais is the voice of the swan and its solo is one of the most famous in the orchestral literature.
The Jäger March (Jääkärimarssi in Finnish, originally Jääkärien marssi) was composed by Jean Sibelius to the words written by the Finnish Jäger, Hilfsgruppenführer Heikki Nurmio in Libau, while in the Royal Prussian 27th Jäger Battalion of the Imperial German Army. This was fighting against the Russian Empire, of which the Grand Duchy of Finland was part. The words were smuggled into Finland to Sibelius, who composed the song.
Finlandia, Op. 26 is a symphonic poem by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius. The first version was written in 1899, and it was revised in 1900. The piece was composed for the Press Celebrations of 1899, a covert protest against increasing censorship from the Russian Empire, as the last of seven pieces, each performed as an accompaniment to a tableau depicting episodes from Finnish history. (See Grand Duchy of Finland for further historical context).
Pelléas et Mélisande (Op. 46) is a 1905 incidental music suite by Jean Sibelius. Sibelius was one of a number of composers to compose music based on Maurice Maeterlinck's 1892 drama Pelléas et Mélisande. While Debussy composed a five act opera, Sibelius was content with an eight movement orchestral suite, which he completed in 1905.
Kullervo, Op. 7 is an early symphonic poem for soloists, chorus and orchestra, written by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius (1865–-1957). The work, based on the character of Kullervo from the epic poem Kalevala, premiered to great critical acclaim on 28 April 1892. The soloists at the premiere were Emmy Achté and Abraham Ojanperä. Kullervo had only four more performances in Sibelius' lifetime, the last one taking place on 12 March 1893.
En saga is a tone poem written by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius in 1892. After hearing Sibelius' choral work Kullervo, the conductor Robert Kajanus encouraged Sibelius to compose a purely orchestral work, which turned out finally to be this work. The evolution of this work is somewhat ambiguous, except that in 1890-1891, Sibelius had commenced composition on an octet for strings, flute and clarinet.
The Karelia Suite, Op. 11, is a collection of orchestral pieces composed by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius. The pieces in this suite are drawn from several independent works he wrote in 1893 for a patriotic historical pageant to be presented by students of the University of Helsinki in Viipuri, Karelia, in the south-eastern corner of Finland. Sibelius subsequently compiled a "Concert Suite" of three pieces from the pageant's incidental music (an overture was published separately as Op. 10).
The Lemminkäinen Suite (also called the Four Legends, or Four Legends from the Kalevala) is a work written by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius in the early 1890s which forms his opus 22. Originally conceived as a mythological opera, Veneen luominen (The Building of the Boat), on a scale matching those by Richard Wagner, Sibelius later changed his musical goals and the work became an orchestral piece in four movements.
Vårsång, Swedish for "Spring Song," is a piece composed in 1894 by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius. Initially the F major "Spring Song" was first composed as a D major Improvisation for Orchestra. Sibelius recasted and retitled the work in 1895, appending the subtitle "The Sadness of Spring" to that (unpublished) version, then made final, pre-publication revisions in 1902. The piece contains an optimism that is relatively rare among Sibelius' works.
Tomás Frías Ametller (1804-1884) was a noted politician who served twice as president of Bolivia (1872-73 and 1874-76). Tomás Frías Province is named after him. Tomás Frías was born to a wealthy land-owning family in Potosí. Frías was Minister of Foreign Relations of President José Ballivián (1841-1847) and a steadfast supporter of civilian rule and the primacy of laws. He was named President by Congress upon the death of dictator Agustín Morales in November 1872.
The Battle of Nihriya was the culminating point of the hostilities between Hittites and Assyrians for control over the remnants of the former empire of Mitanni. When Suppiluliuma I (13th century BCE) conquered Mitanni, he created two provinces, and distributed the large part of territories of this kingdom between his allies. The rest of what had been the empire of Mitanni retained its independence as a Hittite vassal state called Hanigalbat.
Zielone is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Rawa Mazowiecka, within Rawa County, Łódź Voivodeship, in central Poland. It lies approximately 10 kilometres (6 mi) south-west of Rawa Mazowiecka and 48 km (30 mi) east of the regional capital Łódź.