The Doge (Venetian language, also Doxe, derived from Latin Dux military leader, duke; cf. English Duke, Italian Duce) was the chief magistrate and leader of the Most Serene Republic of Venice for over a thousand years. Doges of Venice were elected for life by the city-state's aristocracy. Commonly the person selected as Doge was the shrewdest elder in the city.
Enrico Dandolo (1107? – 21 June 1205) — anglicised as Henry Dandolo and latinized as Henricus Dandulus — was the 41st Doge of Venice from 1195 until his death. Remembered for his blindness, piety, longevity, and shrewdness, he is infamous for his role in the Fourth Crusade which he, at age ninety, directed against the Byzantine Empire, sacking Constantinople. In the nineteenth-century, the Regia Marina (Italian Navy) launched an ironclad battleship named Enrico Dandolo.
Sebastiano Ziani was a famous leader of Venice, and was Doge from 1172 to 1178. Ziani was one of the greatest planners of Venice. During his short term as Doge, Ziani divided the city-state into many districts. He realised that the government headquarters were too close to the shipyard. As such, they were affected by the noise from the shipyard. Ziani resolved this problem by donating a piece of land to the city-state and relocating the shipyard in it.
Marino Faliero (1285 - 17 April 1355) was the fifty-fifth Doge of Venice, appointed on 11 September 1354. He was sometimes referred to simply as Marin Falier (Venetian rather than standard Italian). He attempted a coup d'etat in 1355, at the time being Doge himself, but with the intention of declaring himself Prince. This failed action is mostly attributed to a combination of a strong hatred for nobility and his senility (he was in his seventies at the time).
Paoluccio or Paolo Lucio Anafesto (Latin Anafestus Paulucius or Paulicius) was the reputed first doge of Venice. A noble of Eraclea, then the primary city of the region, he was elected in 697 as an official over the entire lagoon that surrounded Venice, both to put an end to the conflicts between the various tribunes who until then had governed the various parts, and to coordinate the defence against the Lombards and the Slavs who were encroaching on the settlements.
Pietro Ziani (died 13 March 1230) was the forty-second Doge of Venice from 15 August 1205 to 1229, succeededing Enrico Dandolo. He was the son of Doge Sebastian Ziani of the very rich noble family. In his youth a sailor, he commanded a flotilla escorting the emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1177, took also part in the Fourth Crusade and sacking of Constinople.
Pietro I Candiano, (c. 842 – 18 September 887) was briefly the sixteenth Doge of Venice in 887. He followed Orso I Participazio and Giovanni II Participazio as Doge of Venice, elected to the throne at the side of the elderly, and beloved, Giovanni circa April 887. He launched a military attempt against the Dalmatian Croat principality of Pagania, which was hostile to Venetia after 886.
Pietro II Candiano (c. 872 – 939) was the nineteenth Doge of Venice between 932 and 939. He followed his father, Pietro I Candiano (887), Pietro Tribuno (888-912), and Orso II Participazio (912-932) to become Doge of Venice in 932. He began the Venetian policy of expansion on the mainland after 932. Candiano II began a bitter economic blockading war against Istria early in his rule.
G-sharp minor is a minor scale based on G♯, consisting of the pitches G♯, A♯, B, C♯, D♯, E, and F♯. For the harmonic minor, the F♯ is raised to FFile:DoubleSharp. svg. Its key signature has five sharps. Its relative major is B major, and its parallel major is G-sharp major, usually replaced by A-flat major, its enharmonic equivalent. Changes needed for the melodic and harmonic versions of the scale are written in with accidentals as necessary.