Peter Minuit, Pierre Minuit or Peter Minnewit (1580 – August 5, 1638) was a Walloon from Wesel, in present-day North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, then part of the Duchy of Clèves. He was the Director-General of the Dutch colony of New Netherland from 1626 until 1633, and he founded the Swedish colony of New Sweden in 1638.
Fyodor II Borisovich Godunov of Russia (1589 - 10 June/20 June 1605) was a tsar of Russia (1605) during the Time of Troubles. He was born in Moscow, the son and successor to Boris Godunov. His mother Maria Grigorievna Skuratova-Belskaya was one of the daughters of Malyuta Skuratov, the infamous favourite of Ivan the Terrible.
Ivan (Dživo) Franov Gundulić is the most celebrated Croatian Baroque poet from the Republic of Ragusa. His work embodies central characteristics of Roman Catholic Counter-Reformation: religious fervor, insistence on "vanity of this world" and zeal in opposition to "infidels.
Antonio de León Pinelo was a Spanish-colonial historian (1589 – 1660). Pinelo was born in Cordova de Tucuman, and educated in the College of the Jesuits of Lima. He travelled to Spain in 1612 and became attorney of the council of the Indies. Then, he became judge of the tribunal of La Contratacion in Seville, succeeding Gil Gonzalez Davila in 1658 in the post of historian of the Indies. He died in Seville.
Jérôme Bignon (1589–1656) was a French lawyer born in Paris. His family was originating from the western part of France and came to Paris at the beginning of the sixteen century. He was uncommonly precocious, and under his father's tuition had acquired an immense mass of knowledge before he was ten years of age. In 1600 was published a work by him entitled Choréographie, ou description de la Terre Sainte.
Adriaen Pietersz van de Venne was a versatile Dutch Golden Age painter of allegories, genre subjects and portraits, as well as a miniaturist, book-illustrator and designer of political satires and a versifier.
Abatai, (July 27, 1589 - May 10, 1646), was a Manchu General. An inconsistent and dissolute malcontent, he nevertheless showed considerable ability as a commander and administrator. Born on July 27, 1589, he was the seventh son of Nurhachi. He led Manchu forces against the tribes of Weji in 1611 and Jarut in 1623. He was disciplined for abandoning his colleagues during a raid into China in 1629 and was also held responsible for the loss of Yongping and other cities from 1629 to 1630.
Gisbertus Voetius (Latinized version of the Dutch name Gijsbert Voet) (3 March 1589 – 1 November 1676) was a Dutch Calvinist theologian. He was born at Heusden, Holland, studied at Leiden, and in 1611 became Protestant pastor of Vlijmen, whence in 1617 he returned to Heusden. In 1619 he played an influential part in the Synod of Dort, and in 1634 was made professor of theology and Oriental science at the University of Utrecht. Three years later he became pastor of the Utrecht congregation.
Yonten Gyatso or Yon-tan-rgya-mtsho (1589–1617) was the 4th Dalai Lama, born in Mongolia on the 30th day of the 12th month of the Earth-Ox year of the Tibetan calendar. (but other sources say he was born in the 1st month of the Earth Ox Year).
The Münchhausen-Trilemma (after Baron Münchhausen, who allegedly pulled himself out of a swamp by his own hair), also called Agrippa's Trilemma, is a philosophical term coined to stress the purported impossibility to prove any truth even in the fields of logic and mathematics. It is the name of an argument in the theory of knowledge going back to the German philosopher Hans Albert, and, more traditionally, Agrippa.