In vivo (Latin for "within the living") is experimentation using a whole, living organism as opposed to a partial or dead organism, or an in vitro controlled environment. Animal testing and clinical trials are two forms of in vivo research. In vivo testing is often employed over in vitro because it is better suited for observing the overall effects of an experiment on a living subject.
A procedure performed in vitro is performed not in a living organism but in a controlled environment, such as in a test tube or Petri dish. Many experiments in cellular biology are conducted outside of organisms or cells; because the test conditions may not correspond to the conditions inside of the organism, this may lead to results that do not correspond to the situation that arises in a living organism.
Ad libitum is Latin for "at [one's] pleasure"; it is often shortened to "ad lib" or "ad-lib". The roughly synonymous phrase a bene placito ("at good pleasure") is less common but, in its Italian form a piacere, entered the musical lingua franca (see below).
In silico is an expression used to mean "performed on computer or via computer simulation. " The phrase was coined in 1989 as an analogy to the Latin phrases in vivo and in vitro which are commonly used in biology and refer to experiments done in living organisms and outside of living organisms, respectively.
Ex vivo means that which takes place outside an organism. In science, ex vivo refers to experimentation or measurements done in or on tissue in an artificial environment outside the organism with the minimum alteration of natural conditions. Ex vivo conditions allow experimentation under more controlled conditions than possible in the intact organism, at the expense of altering the "natural" environment.
Sensu is a Latin term meaning "in the sense of". It is used in a number of fields including biology, geology and law as part of the phrases sensu stricto or stricto sensu ("in the stricter sense"), and sensu lato or lato sensu ("in the wider sense") .. In rare cases the superlatives sensu strictissimo ("in the strictest sense") and sensu latissimo ("in the widest sense") may be used.
Hibernaculum plural form: hibernacula (Latin, "tent for winter quarters") is a word used in zoology to refer to a place of abode in which a creature seeks refuge, such as a bear using a cave to overwinter. Insects may hibernate to survive the winter. The word can be used to describe a variety of shelters made by various animals, for instance, bats and snakes.
Hitomi Yaida MTV Unplugged is a the DVD release from Hitomi Yaida of her performance for MTV Unplugged. Recorded in the Tokyo FM Hall in April 2005, this performance was shown on an episode of MTV Unplugged broadcast on MTV Japan. Yaida became the 3rd Japanese performing artist to appear on MTV Unplugged, the others being Ken Hirai and Utada Hikaru. Presented as a 2 DVD package, the 2nd DVD presented a documentary behind-the-scenes of the creation of this recording.