The Islamic conquest of Afghanistan (642–1187) began after the Islamic conquest of Persia was completed, when Arab Muslims defeated the Sassanid Empire at the battles of Walaja, al-Qādisiyyah and Nahavand. The Arabs then began to move towards the lands east of Persia and in 642 captured the city, Herat. The complete conversion of Afghanistan to Islam was during the period of the Ghaznavids, in or about the 11th century.
The detailed history of Afghanistan begins around 330 BC with the arrival of Alexander the Great and his Greek army although civilization had existed on the land for thousands of years. The state of Afghanistan has been referred to by other names in the past. It is the land where many powerful kingdoms established their capitals, including the Kushan, Saffarid, Ghaznavid, Ghurid, Timurid, Mughal, Hotaki, and the Durrani Empire.
Khadamat-e Etela'at-e Dawlati (Persian 'خدمات اطلاعات دولتی'), almost always known by its acronym KHAD (or KhAD), is the main security agency and intelligence agency of Afghanistan, and also served as the secret police during the Soviet occupation. Successor to AGSA (Department for Safeguarding the Interests of Afghanistan) and KAM, KHAD was nominally part of the Afghan state, but it was firmly under the control of the Soviet KGB until 1989.
Amanullah Khan reigned in Afghanistan from 1919, achieving full independence from the British Empire shortly afterwards. Before final peace negotiations were concluded in 1921, Afghanistan had already begun to establish its own foreign policy, including diplomatic relations with the new government in the Soviet Union in 1919. During the 1920s, Afghanistan established diplomatic relations with most major countries.
Tora Bora, known locally as Spīn Ghar, is a cave complex situated in the White Mountains of eastern Afghanistan, in the Pachir Wa Agam District of Nangarhar province, approximately 50 km (31 mi) west of the Khyber Pass and 10 km (6.2 mi) north of the border of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) in Pakistan. During the US invasion of Afghanistan it was one of the strongholds of the Taliban and its Arab Al Qaeda allies.
The Hindu Kush is a 500-mile mountain range stretching between north-western Pakistan and eastern and central Afghanistan. The highest point in the Hindu Kush is Tirich Mir (7,708 m or 25,289 ft) in the Chitral region of the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. It is the westernmost extension of the Pamir Mountains, the Karakoram Range, and is a sub-range of the Himalayas. It is also calculated to be the geographic center of population of the world.
The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan was a government of Afghanistan between 1978 and 1992 recognised by 8 countries. It was both ideologically close to and economically dependent on the Soviet Union, and was a major belligerent of the Afghan Civil War.
The Great Game is a term used for the strategic rivalry and conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia. The classic Great Game period is generally regarded as running approximately from the Russo-Persian Treaty of 1813 to the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907. A second, less intensive phase followed the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 .
Victorius of Aquitaine, a countryman of Prosper of Aquitaine and also working in Rome, produced in 457 an Easter Cycle, which was based on the consular list provided by Prosper's Chronicle. This dependency caused scholars to think that Prosper had been working on his own Easter Annals for quite some time. In fact, Victorius published his work only two years after the final publication of Prosper's Chronicle. Victorius finished his Cursus Paschalis in 457.