Coin collecting is the collecting or trading of coins or other forms of minted legal tender. Coins of interest to collectors often include those that circulated for only a brief time, coins with mint errors and especially beautiful or historically significant pieces. Coin collecting can be differentiated from numismatics in that the latter is the systematic study of currency. Though closely related, the two disciplines are not necessarily the same.
Coins are made from one or more coinage metals. Many coinage metals are from Group 11 of the Periodic table, however there are some exceptions. Precious metals are used in bullion coins and some collectable coins. Coins not intended for circulation or for intrinsic value, have also been made experimentally using an even larger variety of metals, in technical and artistic experiments.
A coin is a piece of hard material that is standardized in weight, it is produced in large quantities in order to facilitate trade, and primarily and above all has the mark of the authority that produces it. Coins are usually metal or a metallic material and sometimes made of synthetic materials, usually in the shape of a disc, and most often issued by a government.
Cupronickel or copper-nickel (sometimes incorrectly referred to as "cupernickel") is an alloy of copper that contains nickel and strengthening elements, such as iron and manganese. Cupronickel is highly resistant to corrosion in seawater, because its electrode potential is adjusted to be neutral with regard to seawater.
Piggy bank (sometimes penny bank or money box) is the traditional name of a coin accumulation and storage receptacle; it is most often, but not exclusively, used by children. The piggy bank is known to collectors as a "still bank" as opposed to the "mechanical banks" popular in the early 20th century. These items are also often used by corporations for promotional purposes. Their shape is most often that of a little pig.
A picayune was a Spanish coin, worth half a real. Its name derives from the French picaillon, which is itself from the Provençal picaioun, meaning "small coin. " By extension, can mean "trivial" or "of little value. " Aside from being used in Spanish territories, the picayune and other Spanish currency was used throughout colonial America. Spanish dollars were made legal tender in the United States by an act on February 9, 1793 until it was demonetized on February 21, 1857.
Mint-made errors are errors in a coin made by the mint during the minting process. They are almost always accidental and in modern minting are usually very rare, making them valuable to numismatists. Minting errors are far more common in older coinage, understandably. Authentic error coins must not be confused with coins that have incurred damage after being minted.
Palynology is the science that studies contemporary and fossil palynomorphs, including pollen, spores, orbicules, dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs, chitinozoans and scolecodonts, together with particulate organic matter (POM) and kerogen found in sedimentary rocks and sediments. Palynology does not include diatoms, foraminiferans or other organisms with silicaceous or calcareous exoskeletons.
Warith Deen Umar is a New York area imam. Umar, a resident of Bethlehem, New York was born Wallace Gene Marks. Umar was born the seventh child of a Black Muslim minister, and named in honor of Wallace Delaney Fard. Umar is a former convict. He drew public attention in 2009 when he gave a speech at the annual convention of the Islamic Society of North America in which he asserted that the Holocaust happened to the Jews "because they were serially disobedient to Allah.
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