Henry David Thoreau (born David Henry Thoreau; July 12, 1817– May 6, 1862) was an American author, poet, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, historian, philosopher, and leading transcendentalist. He is best known for his book Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay, Civil Disobedience, an argument for individual resistance to civil government in moral opposition to an unjust state.
Alphonse de Polignac (1817 – 1890) was a French mathematician. In 1849 he made Polignac's conjecture: For every natural number k, there are infinitely many prime gaps of size 2k. The case k = 1 is the twin prime conjecture.
José Zorrilla y Moral (21 February 1817 - 23 January 1893), was a Spanish Romantic poet and dramatist. He was born in Valladolid to a magistrate in whom Ferdinand VII placed special confidence,. He was educated by the Jesuits at the Real Seminario de Nobles in Madrid, wrote verses when he was twelve, became an enthusiastic admirer of Walter Scott and Chateaubriand, and took part in the school performances of plays by Lope de Vega and Calderón de la Barca.
Richard Dadd (1 August 1817 – 7 January 1886) was an English painter of the Victorian era, noted for his depictions of fairies and other supernatural subjects, Orientalist scenes, and enigmatic genre scenes, rendered with obsessively minuscule detail. Most of the works for which he is best known were created while he was incarcerated in a psychiatric hospital.
Charles-François Daubigny (Paris, 15 February 1817 – 19 February 1878 in Paris) was one of the painters of the Barbizon school, and is considered an important precursor of Impressionism. Daubigny was born into a family of painters and was taught the art by his father Edmond François Daubigny and his uncle, miniaturist Pierre Daubigny. Initially Daubigny painted in a traditional style, but this changed after 1843 when he settled in Barbizon to work outside in nature.
Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen (30 November 1817 – 1 November 1903) was a German classical scholar, historian, jurist, journalist, politician, archaeologist, and writer generally regarded as the greatest classicist of the 19th century. His work regarding Roman history is still of fundamental importance for contemporary research. He received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1902, and was also a prominent German politician, as a member of the Prussian and German parliaments.
Hans Theodor Woldsen Storm (14 September 1817 – 4 July 1888) was a German writer. He was born in Husum (die graue Stadt am grauen Meer, "the grey town by the grey sea") on the west coast of Schleswig-Holstein of well-to-do parents. While still a student of law, he published a first volume of verse together with the brothers Tycho and Theodor Mommsen.
Bahá'u'lláh (12 November 1817 – 29 May 1892), born Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Nuri, was the founder of the Bahá'í Faith. He claimed to be the prophetic fulfilment of Bábism, a 19th-century outgrowth of Shí‘ism, but in a broader sense claimed to be a messenger from God referring to the fulfilment of the eschatological expectations of Islam, Christianity, and other major religions. Bahá'u'lláh taught that humanity is one single race and that the age has come for its unification in a global society.
Year 1549 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. In the Kingdom of England, it was known as 'The Year of the Many-Headed Monster', because of the unusually high number of rebellions which racked the country.
Otto Georg Ammon (December 7, 1842, Karlsruhe - January 14, 1916, Karlsruhe) was a German anthropologist. Ammon was an engineer from 1863 to 1868. In 1883 he led a geographical and geological exploration of Roman roads. In 1887 he conducted anthropological research and from 1887 onwards he was a member of the Ancient Karlsruher Association and the Natural Science Association. In 1904 he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Freiburg.
Collective intelligence is a shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration and competition of many individuals. Collective intelligence appears in a wide variety of forms of consensus decision making in bacteria, animals, humans, and computer networks.