Gaius Julius Caesar (13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman military and political leader. He played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. As a politician, Caesar made use of popularist tactics.
Titus Livius (59 BC – AD 17), known as Livy in English, was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people, Ab Urbe Condita Libri, "Chapters from the Foundation of the City," covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome well before the traditional foundation in 753 BC through the reign of Augustus in Livy's own time.
Sima Qian (ca. 145 or 135 BC–86 BC) was a Prefect of the Grand Scribes (太史令) of the Han Dynasty. He is regarded as the father of Chinese historiography because of his highly praised work, Records of the Grand Historian (史記 or 史记), a "Jizhuanti" style general history of China covering more than two thousand years from the Yellow Emperor to Emperor Han Wudi (漢武帝 or 汉武帝). His definitive work laid the foundation for later Chinese historiography.
Gaius Asinius Pollio (sometimes wrongly called Pollius or Philo) (Teate Marrucinorum - currently Chieti in Abruzzi 75 BC – AD 4) was a Roman soldier, politician, orator, poet, playwright, literary critic and historian, whose lost contemporary history, provided much of the material for the historians Appian and Plutarch. Pollio was most famously a patron of Virgil and a friend of Horace and had poems dedicated to him by both men.
Posidonius "of Apameia" (ὁ Ἀπαμεύς) or "of Rhodes" (ὁ Ῥόδιος) (ca. 135 BCE - 51 BCE), was a Greek Stoic philosopher, politician, astronomer, geographer, historian and teacher native to Apamea, Syria. He was acclaimed as the greatest polymath of his age. None of his vast body of work can be read in its entirety today, as it exists only in fragments.
Diodorus Siculus, was a Greek historian who flourished in the 1st century BC. According to Diodorus' own work, he was born at Agyrium in Sicily (now called Agira). With one exception, antiquity affords no further information about Diodorus' life and doing than is to be found in his own work, Bibliotheca historica. Only Jerome, in his Chronicon under the year of Abraham 1968 (49 BC), writes, "Diodorus of Sicily, a writer of Greek history, became illustrious".
Gnaeus Pompēius Trōgus, known as Pompeius Trogus, Pompey Trogue, or Trogue Pompey, was a 1st century BC Roman historian of the Celtic tribe of the Vocontii in Gallia Narbonensis, flourished during the age of Augustus, nearly contemporary with Livy. His grandfather served in the war against Sertorius with Pompey, through whose influence he obtained Roman citizenship; hence the name Pompeius, adopted as a token of gratitude to his benefactor.
Gaius Sallustius Crispus, generally known simply as Sallust, (86-34 BC), a Roman historian, belonged to a well-known plebeian family, and was born at Amiternum in the country of the Sabines. Throughout his career Sallust always stood by his principle as a popularis, an opposer of Pompey's party and the old aristocracy of Rome.
Lucius Cornelius Alexander Polyhistor was a Greek scholar who was enslaved by the Romans during the Mithridatic War and taken to Rome as a tutor. After his release, he continued to live in Italy as a Roman citizen. He was so productive a writer that he earned the surname polyhistor. The majority of his writings are now lost, but the fragments that remain shed valuable light on antiquarian and eastern Mediterranean subjects.
Valerius Antias (1st century BC) was an ancient Roman annalist whom Livy mentions as a source. No complete works of his survive but from the sixty-five fragments said to be his in the works of other authors it has been deduced that he wrote a chronicle of ancient Rome in at least seventy-five books. The latest dateable event in the fragments is mention of the heirs of the orator, Lucius Licinius Crassus, who died in 91 BC.
Quintus Claudius Quadrigarius, Roman annalist, living probably in the first century BC, wrote a history, in at least twenty-three books, which began with the conquest of Rome by the Gauls and went on to the death of Sulla or perhaps later. Livy freely used Quadrigarius in part of his work (from the sixth book onwards). A big fragment is preserved in Aulus Gellius (ix. 13), giving an account of the single combat between Manlius Torquatus and Gaul.
Liu Xiang born Liu Gengsheng (劉更生), courtesy name Zizheng (子政), was a famous Confucian scholar of the Han Dynasty. He was born in Xuzhou and related to Liu Bang, the founder of the Han dynasty. His son, Liu Xin, developed the "Triple Concordance" astronomical system. Liu compiled the first catalogue of the imperial library and was the first editor of the Shan Hai Jing (finished by his son)).
Lucius Cornelius Sisenna (ca. 120 BC - 67 BC) was a Roman soldier, historian, and annalist. He was killed in action during Pompey's campaign against pirates after the Third Mithridatic War. Sisenna had been commander of the forces on the coast of Greece. He was the author of a history in twenty-three books, all of which have been lost, save a few fragments. Sallust is said to have begun historical work as a continuation of Sisenna's.
Lucius Lucceius, Roman orator and historian, friend and correspondent of Cicero. A man of considerable wealth and literary tastes, he may be compared with Atticus. Disgusted at his failure to become consul in 60 BC, he retired from public life, and devoted himself to writing a history of the Social and Civil Wars. This was nearly completed, when Cicero earnestly requested him to write a separate history of his (Cicero's) consulship.
Alexander of Miletus was a Greek historian and author who flourished between 105 and 40 He was the author of a book entitled Περὶ Ιονδαίων. Only a few fragments have been preserved, quoted in the works of Eusebius and Clement of Alexandria. The work consisted evidently of excerpts from various Jewish, Samaritan, and Hellenistic authors, touching the earlier history of the Jews, strung together with a pretense of chronological order.