Pope Benedict IX (c. 1012 – c.1085), born Theophylactus of Tusculum, was Pope on three occasions between 1032 and 1048. One of the youngest popes, he was the only man to have been Pope on more than one occasion and the only man ever to have sold the papacy.
Estrid was a rich and powerful 11th century woman whose long family saga has been recorded on five or six runestones in Uppland, Sweden. This Estrid was the maternal grandmother of the chieftain Jarlabanke of the Jarlabanke clan. The family were rich landowners and belonged to the higher echelons of Swedish society, and she was probably named after Estrid of the Obotrites, who was the queen of Sweden, and the consort of Olof Skötkonung, at the time Estrid was born.
Murasaki Shikibu (c. 973–c. 1014 or 1025), or Lady Murasaki as she is often known in English, was a Japanese novelist, poet, and a maid of honor of the imperial court during the Heian period. She is best known as the author of The Tale of Genji, written in Japanese between about 1000 and 1008, one of the earliest novels in human history. "Murasaki Shikibu" was not her real name, which is unknown.
Guido of Arezzo or Guido Aretinus or Guido da Arezzo or Guido Monaco or Guido d'Arezzo (991/992 – after 1033) was a music theorist of the Medieval era. He is regarded as the inventor of modern musical notation that replaced neumatic notation; his text, the Micrologus, was the second-most-widely distributed treatise on music in the Middle Ages (after the writings of Boethius). Guido was a monk of the Benedictine order from the Italian city-state of Arezzo.
Pope/Antipope Benedict X (reigned 1058–1059; died ca. 1073 or 1080), was born John Mincius, and later became Cardinal Bishop of Velletri. He was elected in 1058, his election having been arranged by the Count of Tusculum. However, a number of Cardinals alleged that the election was irregular, and that votes had been bought; these cardinals were forced to flee Rome.
Eustace II, (c. 1015-1020 – c. 1087) was count of Boulogne from 1049-1087, fought on the Norman side at the Battle of Hastings, and afterwards received a large honour in England. He was the son of Eustace I. His first wife was Goda, daughter of the English king Æthelred the Unready, and sister of Edward the Confessor. Goda died circa 1047, and he quickly married again (about 1049).
Gershom ben Judah, (c. 960 -1040? -1028?) best known as Rabbeinu Gershom and also commonly known to scholars of Judaism by the title Rabbeinu Gershom Me'Or Hagolah ("Our teacher Gershom the light of the exile"), was a famous Talmudist and Halakhist. Rashi of Troyes (d. 1105) said less than a century after Gershom's death, "all members of the Ashkenazi diaspora are students of his.
Guðríðr Þorbjarnardóttir (or Eiríksdóttir) was a discoverer born, loosely around the year 980 in Laugarbrekka, Iceland. She lived in various places in the, and pushed it's boundaries on her journeys. Her unusual voyages began when she expressed her desire to marry a slave's son. Her father refused permission and so she began to look for escape.
Pietro II Orseolo was the Doge of Venice from 991 to 1009. He began the period of eastern expansion of Venice that lasted for the better part of 500 years. He secured his influence in the Dalmatian Romanized settlements from the Croatians and Paganians, freed Venetia from a 50-year old taxation to Pagania and started Venetia's expansions by conquering Lastovo and Korčula and acquiring Dubrovnik.
Ragnvald Ulfsson the Old (beginning 11th century) was a jarl of Västergötland or Östergötland, and married to a sister of Olav Tryggvason. Ragnvald is mentioned in the skaldic poem Austrfaravísur, ascribed to Sigvatr Þórðarson, skald of King Olaf Haraldsson of Norway (Olaf the Holy), who had been on a diplomatic mission to Sweden. This poem is quoted in the 13th century sagas Fagrskinna and Snorri Sturluson's Heimskringla.
Bethóc ingen Maíl Coluim meic Cináeda was the eldest daughter of King Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, King of Scots, who had no known sons. The strongest hereditary claim of succession to the Scottish throne therefore passed through Bethóc. Approximately 1000, Princess Bethóc married Crínán, Abbot of Dunkeld. The first son of this marriage was Donnchad I, who ascended to the throne of Scotland in 1034.
Thorkell the Tall, also known as Thorkell the High in the Anglo-Saxon chronicles was a Jomsviking, a son of the Scanian chieftain Strut-Harald, a brother of Jarl Sigvaldi, commander of the Jomvikings and the legendary stronghold, mythical Jomsborg, on the Island of Wollin, while himself a notable lord. Thorkell took part in the Battle of Hjörungavágr in 986 and in the Battle of Swold in 1000.
William I, Count of Nevers was born c. 1030, son of Renauld I, Count of Nevers and Adela of France. He married Ermengarde, daughter of Renauld, Count of Tonnerre in 1045. William died at Nevers, after 1083. William I and Ermengarde had six children: Ermengarde (b. 1050), married Hubert I, Count of Beaumont; Robert (1052 - 12 February 1095), later Bishop of Auxerre; William II (1052 - 1090), inherited grandfather's title as Count of Tonnerre; Heloise (b.
Gruoch ingen Boite was the daughter of Boite son of Kenneth III. The dates of her life are not certainly known. Before 1032 Gruoch was married to Gille Coemgáin mac Maíl Brigti, Mormaer of Moray, with whom she had at least one son, Lulach mac Gille Coemgáin, later King of Scots. Gille Coemgáin was killed in 1032, burned in a hall with fifty of his men. Gruoch's second marriage was to King Macbeth, again the date is unrecorded. No children of this marriage are known.
Diarmait mac Maíl na mBó (died 7 February 1072), was king of Leinster and a contender for the title of High King of Ireland. He was one of the most important and significant Kings in Ireland in the pre-Norman era. His influence extended beyond the island of Ireland into the Hebrides, the Isle of Man and even into England.
Dudo, or Dudon was a Norman historian, and dean of Saint-Quentin, where he was born about 965. Sent in 986 by Albert I, Count of Vermandois, on an errand to Richard I, Duke of Normandy, he succeeded in his mission, and, having made a very favorable impression at the Norman court, spent some years in that country. During a second stay in Normandy, Dudo wrote his history of the Normans, a task which Duke Richard had urged him to undertake.
Argyrus (or Argyros) was the son of the Lombard hero Melus of Bari. Upon Melus' defeat at Cannae in 1018, Argyrus and his mother were captured and taken to Constantinople as prisoners. He was out of confinement by 1038, when he returned to Apulia, then in an uproar over being pressed into service during the Byzantine invasion of Sicily. The Lombard troops returned with their Norman and Varangian comrades in 1039, alienated by General George Maniaches.
Theodosius of Kiev is an 11th century saint who brought Cenobitic Monasticism to Kievan Rus' and, together with St Anthony of Kiev, founded the Kiev Kiev Caves Lavra (Monastery of the Caves). A hagiography of Theodosius was written in the twelfth century. Saint Theodosius' greatest achievement has been the introducing of the monastic rule of Saint Theodore the Studite in the Monastery of the Caves from whence it spread to all the monasteries of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Jauhari, or Jawhari (full name Abu Nasr Isma'il ibn Hammad al Jauhari, often referred to as Johari or Johri in Arabic literature), (d. 1002 or 1008), was an Arabian lexicographer born at near the borders of Turkestan. He studied language in Baghdad, and later among the Arabs of the desert. He then settled in Damghan, Iran and afterwards at Nishapur, where he died while attempting flight from the roof of a mosque, possibly inspired by an earlier glider flight by Abbas Ibn Firnas.
William of Jumièges (Guillaume de Jumièges) was a contemporary of the events of 1066, and one of our earliest writers on the subject of the Norman Conquest. He is himself a "shadowy figure", only known by his dedicatory letter to King William as a monk of Jumièges. "Since he also mentions that he was an eyewitness of some events from the reign of Richard III (1026-7), it seems reasonable to assume that he was born some time about the year 1000.
Countess Judith (born in Normandy between 1054 and 1055, died after 1086), was a niece of William the Conqueror. She was a daughter of his sister Adelaide of Normandy, Countess of Aumale and Lambert II, Count of Lens. In 1070, Judith married Earl Waltheof of Huntingdon and Northumbria. They had three daughters, the eldest of whom, Maud, brought the earldom of Huntingdon to her second husband, David I of Scotland. In 1075, Waltheof joined the Revolt of the Earls against William.
Abû l-Hasan 'Alî ibn Abî l-Rijâl (commonly known as Haly, Hali, Albohazen Haly filii Abenragel or Haly Abenragel, from ibn Rijal) was an Arab astrologer of the late 10th and early 11th century, best known for his Kitāb al-bāri' fi ahkām an-nujūm. He was a court astrologer to the Tunisian prince al-Mu'izz ibn Bâdis in the first half of the 11th century. Haly died after 1037 in Kairouan in what is now Tunisia.