Adam of Bremen was a German medieval chronicler. He lived and worked in the second half of the eleventh century. He is most famous for his chronicle Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum (Deeds of Bishops of the Hamburg Church).
Pope Honorius II (died February 13, 1130), born Lamberto Scannabecchi (from 1117 Cardinal Lambert of Ostia), was pope from December 21, 1124, to February 13, 1130. Lamberto came from a simple rural background at Fiagnano Castle, in Casalfiumanese commune, near Imola in present day Italy. In the 12th century, such a successful career from humble beginnings is a mark of outstanding abilities. His learning recommended him to Pope Paschal II (1099–1118), who called him to Rome.
Paschal II, born Ranierius, (died January 21, 1118) was Pope from August 13, 1099, until his death. A monk of the Cluniac order, he was created cardinal priest of the Titulus S. Clementi by Pope Gregory VII (1073–85) about 1076, and was consecrated pope in succession to Pope Urban II (1088–99) on August 19, 1099.
Otto, (1010 or 1020 – c. 1057) was Count of Savoy from 1051 (or 1056) until his death. He was son of Humbert I, the first Count of Savoy, and his wife Ancilla, and ascended the throne after the death of his elder brother, Amadeus I of Savoy. Otto substantially enlarged his lands through his marriage with Adelaide of Susa, countess of Turin and Lady of the Italian Mark, a title she had inherited from her father Olderico Manfredi.
Humbert II, surnamed the Fat, was Count of Savoy from 1080 until his death in 1103. He was the son of Amadeus II of Savoy. He was married to Gisela of Burgundy, daughter of William I, Count of Burgundy, and had 7 children: Amadeus III of Savoy William, Bishop of Liège Adelaide, (d. 1154), married to Louis VI of France Agnes, (d. 1127), married to Archimbald VI, lord of Bourbon Humbert Reginald Guy, abbey of Namur
Eustace II, (c. 1015-1020 – c. 1087) was count of Boulogne from 1049-1087, fought on the Norman side at the Battle of Hastings, and afterwards received a large honour in England. He was the son of Eustace I. His first wife was Goda, daughter of the English king Æthelred the Unready, and sister of Edward the Confessor. Goda died circa 1047, and he quickly married again (about 1049).
Eustace III, was a count of Boulogne, successor to his father Count Eustace II of Boulogne. His mother was Ida of Lorraine. His father Eustace II appeared at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 as an ally of William the Conqueror, and is listed as a possible killer of Harold II; he is also believed to have given William his own horse after the duke's was killed under him by Gyrth, brother of Harold. Eustace III succeeded as Count of Boulogne in 1087.
Donnchad mac Crínáin was king of Scotland. He was son of Crínán, hereditary lay abbot of Dunkeld, and Bethóc, daughter of king Malcolm II of Scotland (Máel Coluim mac Cináeda). Unlike the "King Duncan" of Shakespeare's Macbeth, the historical Duncan appears to have been a young man. He followed his grandfather Malcolm as king after the latter's death on 25 November 1034, without apparent opposition.
Anne of Kiev or Anna Yaroslavna (between 1024 and 1032 – 1075), daughter of Yaroslav I of Kiev and his wife Princess Ingegerd of Sweden, was the queen consort of France as the wife of Henry I, and regent for her son Philip I.
Thurgot (or Turgot) was the first "Norman" Bishop of Saint Andrews (then called Cell Rígmonaid, and Kilrymont by Scoto-Normans). He had previously been the Prior of the Benedictine convent of Durham Cathedral, and was probably the confessor of Margaret of Wessex, the Anglo-Saxon second wife of Malcolm III of Scotland (Máel Coluim mac Donnchada), and hence probably known to King Alexander I and Prince David of the Cumbrians since childhood.
Albert of Aix-la-Chapelle or Albert of Aachen, historian of the First Crusade, was born during the later part of the 11th century, and afterwards became canon and custos of the church of Aachen. Nothing else is known of his life except that he was the author of a Historia Hierosolymitanae expeditionis, or Chronicon Hierosolymitanum de bello sacro, a work in Latin in twelve books, written between 1125 and 1150.
Fulk (1089/1092 in Angers – 13 November 1143 in Acre), also known as Fulk the Younger, was Count of Anjou (as Fulk V) from 1109 to 1129, and King of Jerusalem from 1131 to his death. He was also the paternal grandfather of Henry II of England.
Ralph (died 20 October 1122), also known as Ralph d'Escures from the family estate Escures, near Sées in Normandy, was a medieval Abbot of Séez, Bishop of Rochester and then Archbishop of Canterbury. He studied at the school at the Abbey of Bec before he entered the abbey of St Martin at Séez in 1079 and became abbot of the house in 1091. He was a friend of both Saint Anselm and Gundulf, Bishop of Rochester, whose see, or bishopric, he took over on the death of Gundulf.
Ranulf Flambard, also known as Ralph Flambard or Ranulph Flambard and sometimes Ranulf Passiflamme, (c. 1060–5 September 1128) was a medieval Norman Bishop of Durham and an influential government minister of King William Rufus of England. He was the son of a priest of Bayeux, Normandy, and his nickname Flambard means incendiary or torch-bearer, and may have referred to his personality.
William de St-Calais (also Calais or Carileph or Carilef) (died 1096), was a medieval Norman monk, abbot of the abbey of St Vincent in Le Mans in Maine, who was nominated by King William I of England as Bishop of Durham in 1080. During his term as bishop, St-Calais replaced the canons of his cathedral chapter with monks, and began the construction of Durham Cathedral. In addition to his ecclesiastical duties, he served as a commissioner for the Domesday Book.
William of Malmesbury (c. 1080/1095–c. 1143), English historian of the 12th century, was born about the year 1080/1095, in Wiltshire. His father was Norman and his mother English. He spent his whole life in England, and his adult life as a monk at Malmesbury Abbey in Wiltshire, England.
Robert Fitzhamon (died March 1107), or Robert FitzHamon, Sieur de Creully in the Calvados region and Torigny in the Manche region of Normandy, was Lord of Gloucester and the Norman conqueror of Glamorgan, southern Wales. As a kinsman of the Conqueror and one of the few Anglo-Norman barons to remain loyal to the two successive kings William Rufus and Henry I of England, he was a prominent figure in England and Normandy.
Anselm of Laon (died 1117) was a French theologian. Remembered in the century after his death as "Anselmus" or "Anselm", his name was more properly "Ansellus" or, in Modern French, "Anseau. " Born of very humble parents at Laon before the middle of the 11th century, he is said to have studied under Saint Anselm at Bec, though this is almost certainly incorrect. Other potential teachers of Anselm have been identified, including Bruno of Cologne and Manegold of Lautenbach. By ca.
Dagobert (died 1107) was the first Archbishop of Pisa and the first Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem after it was captured in the First Crusade. He became Archbishop of Pisa in 1085, and in 1092 Pope Urban II conferred upon him the Primacy of the dioceses of the islands of Sardinia and Corsica. Dagobert arrived with the Pisan fleet that had come to help the Crusaders besiege the towns along the Mediterranean coast in 1100.
Robert, Count of Mortain was the half-brother of William I of England. Robert was the son of Herluin de Conteville and Herleva of Falaise (who was also William's mother) and was full brother to Odo of Bayeux. The exact year of Robert's birth is unknown (perhaps ca. 1038), although it is generally thought that Odo was the elder of the two, and that Robert was probably not more than a year or so younger than his sibling: there is considerable doubt about the year of Odo's birth.
Robert Malet (b. bef. 1066 - d. 1106?) was an English baron and a close advisor of Henry I. He was the son of William Malet, and inherited his father's great honour of Eye in 1071. This made him one of the dozen or so greatest landholders in England. According to the Domesday book he held 221 manors in Suffolk, 32 in Yorkshire, 8 in Lincolnshire, 3 in Essex, 2 in Nottinghamshire, and 1 in Hampshire. He also inherited the family property in Normandy.
William Malet (died 1071) fought at the Battle of Hastings, a fact recorded in the Bayeux Tapestry. He had substantial property in Normandy, chiefly in the Pays de Caux, with a castle at Graville-Ste-Honorine, at the mouth of the Seine near Harfleur (and nowadays a suburb of Le Havre).