Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) was the adopted son of Julius Caesar and the first ruler of the Roman Empire, which he ruled alone from January 27 BC until his death in AD 14. Born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, he was adopted posthumously by his great-uncle Gaius Julius Caesar in 44 BC, and between then and 31 BC was officially named Gaius Julius Caesar.
Julia Vipsania Agrippina or most commonly known as Agrippina the Elder or Agrippina Major was the distinguished and prominent Roman granddaughter of Augustus. She lived between the 1st century BC and 1st century AD. Agrippina was the wife of the general, politician Germanicus and a relative to the first Roman Emperors.
Julia Agrippina (from AD 50, Julia Augusta Agrippina), also known as Agrippina the Younger and Agrippina Minor (7 November AD 15–19/23 March AD 59) was a Roman empress. She was a great-granddaughter of the emperor Augustus, great-niece and adoptive granddaughter of the emperor Tiberius, sister to the emperor Caligula, niece and fourth wife of the emperor Claudius, and mother of the emperor Nero.
Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (1 August 10 BC – 13 October AD 54) (Tiberius Claudius Drusus from birth to AD 4, then Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus from then until his accession) was the fourth Roman Emperor, a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, ruling from 24 January AD 41 to his death in AD 54. Born in Lugdunum in Gaul, to Drusus and Antonia Minor, he was the first Roman Emperor to be born outside Italia.
Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (31 August AD 12 – 24 January AD 41), more commonly known by his agnomen Caligula, was the third Roman Emperor, reigning from 16 March 37 until his assassination on 24 January 41. Caligula was a member of the house of rulers conventionally known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Caligula's father, Germanicus, the nephew and adopted son of emperor Tiberius, was a very successful general and one of Rome's most beloved public figures.
Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), known as Domitian, was the eleventh Roman Emperor, who reigned from 14 September 81 until his death. Domitian was the third and last emperor of the Flavian dynasty, the house which ruled the Roman Empire between 69 and 96 and encompassed the reigns of Domitian's father Vespasian (69–79), his older brother Titus (79–81), and that of Domitian himself.
Gnaeus Domitius Afer (died 59) was a Roman orator and advocate, born at Nemausus in Gallia Narbonensis. He flourished in the reigns of Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero. He became praetor in 25 AD, and gained the favor of Tiberius by accusing Claudia Pulchra, the second cousin of Agrippina, of adultery and the use of magic arts against the emperor, in 26 AD.
Gnaeus Julius Agricola (June 13 40 – August 23 93) was a Roman general responsible for much of the Roman conquest of Britain. His biography, the De vita et moribus Iulii Agricolae, was the first published work of his son-in-law, the historian Tacitus, and is the source for most of what is known about him. Born to a noted political family, Agricola began his military career in Britain, serving under governor Gaius Suetonius Paulinus.
Germanicus Julius Caesar (24 May 16 BC or 15 BC – 10 October AD 19) was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty of the early Roman Empire. He was born in Lugdunum, Gaul. At birth he was named either Nero Claudius Drusus after his father or Tiberius Claudius Nero after his uncle. He received the agnomen Germanicus, by which he is principally known, in 9 BC, when it was posthumously awarded to his father in honour of his victories in Germania.
Servius Sulpicius Galba (24 December 3 BC – 15 January 69), also called Servius Sulpicius Galba Caesar Augustus, was the sixth Roman Emperor for seven months, from 8 June 68 until his murder. He was the first emperor of the Year of the Four Emperors.
Publius Aelius Hadrianus (as emperor Imperator Caesar Divi Traiani filius Traianus Hadrianus Augustus, and Divus Hadrianus after his apotheosis, known as Hadrian in English; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138) was the fourteenth emperor of Rome from AD 117 to 138, as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. A member of the gens Aelia, Hadrian was the third of the so-called Five Good Emperors.
Josephus (37 – c. 100 AD), also Yosef Ben Matityahu (Joseph son of Matthias) and Titus Flavius Josephus was a first-century Jewish historian of priestly and royal ancestry who recorded the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD. Josephus was a law-observant Jew who believed in the compatibility of Judaism and Graeco-Roman thought. His most important works were The Jewish War (c. 75) and Antiquities of the Jews (c. 94). The Jewish War recounts the Jewish revolt against Rome (66–70).
Titus Livius (59 BC – AD 17), known as Livy in English, was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people, Ab Urbe Condita Libri, "Chapters from the Foundation of the City," covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome well before the traditional foundation in 753 BC through the reign of Augustus in Livy's own time.
Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (15 December AD 37 – 9 June AD 68), born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was the fifth and last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nero was adopted by his great uncle Claudius to become heir to the throne. As Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, he succeeded to the throne on 13 October 54, following Claudius's death.
Marcus Salvius Otho (28 April 32 – 16 April 69), also called Marcus Salvius Otho Caesar Augustus, was the seventh Roman Emperor from 15 January to 16 April 69, the second emperor of the Year of the four emperors.
Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus, born Tiberius Claudius Nero (November 16, 42 BC – March 16, AD 37), was the second Roman Emperor, from the death of Octavian Augustus in AD 14 until his own death in 37. Tiberius was by birth a Claudian, son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. His mother divorced his father and was remarried to Augustus in 39 BC, making him a step-son of Octavian.
Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus, commonly known as Trajan (18 September 53 – 8 August 117), was the thirteenth Roman Emperor, who reigned from AD 98 until his death in AD 117. Born Marcus Ulpius Traianus into a non-patrician family in the Hispania Baetica province, Trajan rose to prominence during the reign of emperor Domitian, serving as a general in the Roman army along the German frontier, and successfully crushing the revolt of Antonius Saturninus in 89.
Aulus Vitellius Germanicus, born Aulus Vitellius and commonly known as Vitellius (24 September or 7 September and according to Suetonius, 12 September or 15 September 15 – 22 December 69), was the eighth Roman Emperor, who reigned from 16 April 69 to 22 December of the same year. Vitellius acceded to this position following the quick succession of the previous emperors Galba and Otho, in a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors.
Titus Flavius Vespasianus, known in English as Vespasian (17 November 9AD – 23 June 79AD), was the ninth Roman Emperor, who reigned from 69 AD until his death in 79 AD. Vespasian was the founder of the short-lived Flavian dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 69 AD and 96 AD. He was succeeded by his sons Titus (79–81) and Domitian (81–96).
Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BCE – 17 or 18 CE), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who is best known as the author of the Heroides, Amores, and Ars Amatoria, three major collections of erotic poetry, the Metamorphoses a mythological hexameter poem, the Fasti, about the Roman calendar, and the Tristia and Epistulae ex Ponto, two collections of poems written in exile on the Black Sea.
Gaius Plinius Secundus (23 CE – August 25, 79), better known as Pliny the Elder, was an author, naturalist, and natural philosopher as well as naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire and personal friend of the emperor Vespasian. Spending most of his spare time studying, writing or investigating natural and geographic phenomena in the field, he wrote an encyclopedic work, Naturalis Historia, which became a model for all such works written subsequently.
Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, born Gaius Caecilius or Gaius Caecilius Cilo (61 AD - ca. 112 AD), better known as Pliny the Younger, was a lawyer, author, and magistrate of Ancient Rome. Pliny's uncle, Pliny the Elder, helped raise and educate him and they were both witnesses to the eruption of Vesuvius on 24 August 79 AD, the day of the elder's death. Pliny is known for his hundreds of surviving letters, which are an invaluable historical source for the period.
Gaius Iulius Vindex, of a noble Gaulish family of Aquitania given senatorial status under Claudius, was a Roman governor in the province of Gallia Lugdunensis. In either late 67 or early 68, rebelled against the tax policy of the Emperor Nero. According to the historian Cassius Dio, Vindex "was powerful in body and of shrewd intelligence, was skilled in warfare and full of daring for any great enterprise; and he had a passionate love of freedom and a vast ambition" (Cassius Dio, 63.22.1-2).