Dr. Alfred Rosenberg Ph. D (12 January 1893 – 16 October 1946) was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi Party. Rosenberg was first introduced to Adolf Hitler by Dietrich Eckart; he later held several important posts in the Nazi government. He is considered one of the main authors of key Nazi ideological creeds, including its racial theory, persecution of the Jews, Lebensraum, abrogation of the Treaty of Versailles, and opposition to "degenerate" modern art.
Alois Brunner (born April 8, 1912, reports of death contested) is an Austrian Nazi war criminal. Brunner was Adolf Eichmann's assistant, and Eichmann referred to Brunner as his "best man. " As commander of the Drancy internment camp outside Paris from June 1943 to August 1944, Alois Brunner is held responsible for sending some 140,000 European Jews to the gas chambers. Nearly 24,000 of them were deported from the Drancy camp.
Rudolf Lange (18 April 1910 – 23 February 1945) was a prominent Nazi official. He served as commander of the SD and SIPO in Riga, Latvia. He participated in the Wannsee Conference, and was largely responsible for implementing the extermination of Latvia's Jewish population (Einsatzgruppe A killed over 250,000 people in little less than six months).
Reichskommissariat Ostland was the German name for the Nazi civil administration of part of the occupied Eastern territories of the Third Reich, occupied during World War II. Ostland was the name given to the German occupied territories of the Baltic states, eastern parts of Poland, and western parts of Belarus. Ostland should not be confused with Ober Ost, which had a similar role as Ostland as an occupation authority of Baltic territories by the German Empire in World War I.
During World War II, the Nazi German Einsatzkommandos were a sub-group of five Einsatzgruppen mobile killing squads – up to 3,000 men each – usually composed of 500-1000 functionaries of the SS and Gestapo, whose mission was to kill Jews, communists and the NKVD collaborators in the captured territories often far behind the advancing German front.
Dr Franz Walter Stahlecker (10 October 1900 – 23 March 1942) was in 1941/42 Commander of the Sicherheitspolizei and the Sicherheitsdienst for the Reichskommissariat Ostland. In this capacity, Stahlecker also commanded Einsatzgruppe A, the most murderous of the four Einsatzgruppen active in German-occupied Eastern Europe.
Else Hirsch was a Jewish teacher in Bochum, Germany, who helped Jewish children to emigrate from the Third Reich. Else Hirsch came from Berlin to Bochum in 1927 where she had been offered a job as a teacher at the Jewish school. Further she worked in the Jewish women's club and gave lessons in Hebrew to girls. In October 1937 she took part in a further education for English language at the Reichsvertretung der Deutschen Juden in Berlin to be able to give English lessons for possible emigrants.
The Arajs Kommando, led by SS-Sturmbannführer Viktors Arājs, was a unit of Latvian Auxiliary Police subordinated to the Nazi SD. It was one of the more well-known and notorious killing units during the Holocaust. This group, composed of right-wing Latvian men, made contact with the leader of Einsatzgruppe A, Walter Stahlecker, in early July 1941, immediately following the German capture of Riga. All of the Arajs Kommando members were volunteers, and free to leave at any time.
Friedrich Jeckeln (2 February 1895 - 3 February 1946) was an SS-Obergruppenführer who served as an SS and Police Leader in the occupied Soviet Union during World War II. Jeckeln led one of the largest collection of Einsatzgruppen and was personally responsible for ordering the deaths of over 100,000 Jews, Slavs, Roma, and other "undesirables" of the Third Reich.
Herberts Cukurs was a famous Latvian aviator and alleged war criminal. He was a member of the notorious Arajs Kommando and was involved in murders of Latvian Jews as part of the Holocaust but he never stood trial and thus his alleged participation was never juridically proven. There are however multiple eyewitness accounts linking Cukurs to war crimes.
Hans-Adolf Prützmann was a Superior SS and Police Leader, as well as an SS Obergruppenführer. He was a senior Nazi in the administration of Latvia following the German conquest of that country in 1941 and as such was involved to an extent not yet fully determined, in carrying out The Holocaust in the Baltic States.
The Sonderaktion 1005, also called Aktion 1005, or Enterdungsaktion was conducted during the Second World War to hide any evidence that millions of people had been murdered by Nazi Germany in Aktion Reinhard in occupied Poland. As the war progressed, it was later used to conceal the evidence of massacres committed by SS-Einsatzgruppen Nazi death squads that murdered hundreds of thousands of Jews, Roma and Russian civilians in Eastern Europe.
Eduard Roschmann alias "F(r)ederico Wagner" (or "Wegener") was a member of the Nazi SS organization. He was commandant of the Riga ghetto from January 1943 until the ghetto was closed in the fall of that year. He was responsible for numerous murders and other atrocities. He is chiefly remembered as the so-called "Butcher of Riga".
The Jäger Report was written on 1 December 1941 by Karl Jäger, commander of Einsatzkommando 3, a killing unit of Einsatzgruppen A which was attached to Army Group North during the Operation Barbarossa. It is the most precise surviving chronicle of the activities of one individual Einsatzkommando. The Jäger Report is a tally sheet of actions by Einsatzkommando 3, including Rollkommando Hamann.
Martin Sandberger (born 17 August 1911) was an SS Standartenführer (Colonel) and commander of Sonderkommando 1a of the Einsatzgruppe, as well as commander of the Sicherheitspolizei and SD in Estonia. He played an important role in the mass murder of the Jews in the Baltic states. He was also responsible for the arrest of Jews in Italy and their deportation to Auschwitz concentration camp. Sandberger was the highest official of Einsatzgruppe A to be tried and convicted.
Konrāds Kalējs (26 June 1913 – 8 November 2001) was a Latvian soldier who was Nazi collaborator and an alleged war criminal during World War II. He gained notoriety for evading calls for his prosecution across four countries, more than once under the threat of deportation, Lord Greville Janner once describing him as "the most unwanted wanted man in the world."
Šķēde (Skede) is a suburban settlement near Liepāja, Latvia, in Medze parish. It is located on the north border of the city. Šķēde was the biggest dacha cooperative in Latvia in the times of Latvian SSR. One of the Šķēde's notable features are street names, which are called "lines" and numbered from 1 to 18. Typical Šķēde addresses look like: Šķēde 1-15-2. Until 2005, the main Liepāja landfill was located near Šķēde.
The Rumbula massacre was the two-day (November 30, 1941 and December 8, 1941) killing of about 25,000 Jews in and on the way to Rumbula forest near Riga, Latvia, during the Holocaust. Save only the Babi Yar massacre in Ukraine, this was the biggest two-day Holocaust atrocity until the operation of the death camps. About 24,000 of the victims were Latvian Jews from the Riga Ghetto and approximately 1,000 were German Jews transported to the forest by train.
Ukrainian Auxiliary Police (Ukrainische Hilfpolizei), Ukrainian military units that were set up in the General Government at the beginning of the German invasion of the Soviet Union in mid-1941. The job of these collaborating Ukrainians was to aid German troops in various operations, such as fighting the Soviet Partisans. In the General Government in the district Galicia were 6 thousands Ukrainian policemen.
Latvian Auxiliary Police was a paramilitary force created from Latvian volunteers by the Nazi German authorities who occupied the country in June 1941. Composed of local fascists, rightist members of the former military and police, and nationalist students, the organization participated in the Holocaust, looting and killing the local Jewish population. One of its units, the Arajs Kommando, was notorious for killing 26,000 civilians during the war, mostly Jews, but also Communists and Romas.