The Canadian Shield—also called the Laurentian Plateau, or Bouclier Canadien (French)—is a massive geological shield covered by a thin layer of soil that forms the nucleus of the North American or Laurentia craton. It is an area mainly covered by igneous rock which relates to its long volcanic history.
The Sudbury Basin, also known as Sudbury Structure or the Sudbury Nickel Irruptive, is a major geologic structure in Ontario, Canada. It is the second-largest known impact crater or astrobleme on Earth, as well as one of the oldest. The basin is located on the Canadian Shield in the city of Greater Sudbury, Ontario. The former municipalities of Rayside-Balfour and Valley East lie within the Sudbury Basin, which is referred to locally as "The Valley".
The Gunflint Range is an iron ore deposit in northern Minnesota in the United States and Northwestern Ontario, Canada. The range extends from the extreme northern portion of Cook County, Minnesota into Canada. The Gunflint is a continuation of the Mesabi Range to the southwest. The two have been separated by the intrusion of the Duluth Gabbro complex. The iron deposit is a banded iron formation of the Early Proterozoic Animikie Group.
The Penokean orogeny was a mountain-building episode that occurred in the early Proterozoic about 1.85 to 1.84 billion years ago, in the area of North America that would eventually become Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan and Ontario. It was a major event in the formation of the North American continent, and happened during a worldwide period of mountain building and continent formation.
The Superior craton forms the core of both the North American continent and the Canadian Shield. It extends from Quebec in the east to eastern Manitoba in the west. The western margin extends from northern Minnesota through eastern Manitoba to northwestern Ontario.
The Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) or Keweenawan Rift is a 2,000 km (1,243 mi) long geological rift in the center of the North American continent and south-central part of the North American plate. It formed when the continent's core, the North American craton, began to split apart during the Mesoproterozoic era of the Precambrian, about 1.1 billion years ago.
The Frontenac Axis is an exposed strip of precambrian rock in Canada and the United States which links the Canadian Shield with the Adirondack mountain range in New York, an extension of the Laurentian mountains of Québec. The axis separates the St. Lawrence Lowlands and the Great Lakes Lowlands. It is an ecoregion of the Mixedwood Plains. It also separates the Canadian Shield and the Lowlands.
The Sudbury Igneous Complex is a 1844 million year old impact melt sheet in Greater Sudbury, Northern Ontario, Canada. It is part of the Sudbury Basin impact structure, and is classified as a lopolith.
The Mackenzie dike swarm, also called the Mackenzie dikes, form a large igneous province in the western Canadian Shield of Canada. It is part of the larger Mackenzie Large Igneous Province and is one of more than three dozen dike swarms in various parts of the Canadian Shield.
Temagamite is a bright white palladium mercury telluride mineral with a hardness of 2½. Its chemical formula is Pd3HgTe3. It was discovered at the Temagami Mine on Temagami Island, Lake Temagami in 1973. It occurs as microscopic inclusions within massive chalcopyrite at Temagami in association with other rare tellurides: merenskyite, stützite, hessite and an unnamed Pd-Hg-Ag telluride.
The Abitibi greenstone belt is a 2,800-2,600 million year old greenstone belt that spans across the Ontario-Quebec border in Canada. It is mostly made of volcanic rocks, but also includes ultramafic rocks, mafic intrusions, granitoid rocks, and early and middle Precambrian sediments.
The Lake Timiskaming kimberlite field is Canada's southermost kimberlite field, located in Northeastern Ontario and western Quebec, Canada. It is within the Lake Timiskaming Structural Zone which contains over 50 kimberlite pipes, several of which are diamondiferous. The Lake Timiskaming kimberlite field formed about 147 million years ago when the North American Plate moved westward over the long-lived New England hotspot, also referred to as the Great Meteor hotspot.
The Temagami greenstone belt is an Archean greenstone belt in Temagami, Ontario, located 100 km (62 mi) northeast of Sudbury, Canada. It is characterized by felsic-mafic volcanic rocks and averages about 13 km (8 mi) wide and 29 km (18 mi) long with the dominant structure being a northeast trending syncline called the Tetapaga Syncline that has been modified by the emplacement of granitic rocks.
The Temagami Magnetic Anomaly, also called the Temagami Anomaly or the Wanapitei Anomaly, is a large buried geologic structure, stretching from Lake Wanapitei in the west to Bear Island in Lake Temagami. The magnetic anomaly is located on the Canadian Shield in the Temagami region of northeastern Ontario.
The Lac des Îles igneous complex of northwestern Ontario, Canada is a layered gabbroic intrusion which is the host for the largest palladium orebody in Canada. The orebody is currently being mined by a combined open pit and underground operation. The complex is located in the Canadian Shield some 85 kilometers northwest of Thunder Bay, Ontario and Lake Superior at 49.10.00 N 089.36.00 W.
The Red Lake greenstone belt is an Archean greenstone belt in western Ontario, Canada. It consists of basaltic and komatiitic volcanics ranging in age from 2,925 to 2,940 million years old and younger rhyolite-andesite volcanics ranging in age from 2,730 to 2,750 million years old.
The Matachewan dike swarm is a large 2,500 to 2,450 million year old Paleoproterozoic dike swarm of Northern Ontario, Canada. It consists of basaltic dikes that were intruded in greenstone, granite-greenstone, and metamorphosed sedimentary terrains of the Superior craton of the Canadian Shield. With an area of 360,000 km (140,000 sq mi), the Mistassini dike swarm stands as a large igneous province.
The Mamainse Point Formation is a geologic formation located about 64 km (40 mi) north of Sault Ste. Marie in the Lake Superior area of northeastern Ontario, Canada. It consists of volcanics related to volcanism of the Midcontinent Rift System.