Amalric II of Jerusalem or Amalric I of Cyprus, born Amalric of Lusignan (1145 – 1 April 1205), King of Jerusalem 1197–1205, was an older brother of Guy of Lusignan. The Lusignan family was noted for its many Crusaders. Amalric and Guy were sons of Hugh VIII of Lusignan, who had himself campaigned in the Holy Land in the 1160s.
Stephen Báthory (27 September 1533 – 12 December 1586) was a Hungarian noble Prince of Transylvania (1571-1586), then King of Poland (1576-1586) and Grand Duke of Lithuania (1576-1586). He was a member of the Somlyo branch of the noble Hungarian Báthory family. Many historians consider him to be one of the greatest of the elected Kings of Poland.
Sigismund was one of the longest ruling Kings of Hungary and Croatia, reigning for fifty years from 1387 to 1437, and was also Holy Roman Emperor for four years from 1433 until 1437, and the last Emperor of the House of Luxemburg. He was also King of Bohemia from 1419, of Lombardy from 1431, and of Germany from 1411.
Jogaila, later Władysław II Jagiełło (born ca. 1362; died 1 June 1434) was Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434), king-consort of Kingdom of Poland (1386–1399), and sole King of Poland (1399–1434). He ruled in Lithuania from 1377, at first with his uncle Kęstutis. In 1386, he converted Lithuania to Christianity, was baptized as Władysław, married the young Rex Polonorum Jadwiga of Poland, and was crowned Poland's king-consort as Władysław Jagiełło.
Frederick II of Hohenstaufen (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250) was Holy Roman Emperor from his papal coronation in 1220 until his death; he was also a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. As such, he was King of Germany, of Italy, and of Burgundy. At the age of three he was crowned King of Sicily, his undoubted right; his mother Constance, being the daughter of Roger II of Sicily.
Francis II was King of France (1559 – 1560) and King consort of Scotland (1558–1560). He was born at the Royal Chateau at Fontainebleau, the son of Henry II, King of France (31 March 1519 – 10 July 1559) and Catherine de' Medici (13 April 1519 – 5 January 1589). He was the grandson of King Francis I of France, and of Claude of France, and the brother of King Charles IX of France, and of King Henry III of France. He was also the first husband of Mary, Queen of Scots.
Philip IV of France (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), called the Fair, son and successor of Philip III, reigned as King of France from 1285 until his death. He was the husband of Joan I of Navarre, by virtue of which he was King of Navarre (as Philip I) and Count of Champagne from 1284 to 1305. The nickname Philip "the Fair" or "the Handsome" comes from his appearance; it had nothing to do with his actions as king.
Guy of Lusignan (c. 1150 — 18 July 1194) was a Poitevin knight, son of Hugh VIII of the prominent Lusignan dynasty. He was king of the crusader state of Jerusalem from 1186 to 1192 by right of marriage to Sibylla of Jerusalem, and of Cyprus from 1192 to 1194. Having arrived in the Holy Land in the 1170s, Guy rose to prominence within the royal courts of Baldwin IV before marrying Sybilla in 1180 to prevent a political incident within the kingdom.
Francisco III de Lorena, ou Francisco Estêvão. Filho do duque Leopoldo de Lorena e de Isabel Carlota de Orléans, filha, por sua vez, de Felipe I, Duque de Orléans. Fundou o ramo Habsburgo-Lorena. Foi duque da Lorena de 1729 a 1736 (Francisco III) e grão-duque da Toscana de 1737 a 1765 (Francisco II). É conhecido também como Francisco III Estêvão, Duque da Lorena.
Philip I (22 July 1478 – 25 September 1506), known as Philip the Handsome or the Fair, was the first Habsburg King of Castile. The son of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Philip inherited the greater part of the Duchy of Burgundy and the Burgundian Netherlands (as Philip IV) from his mother, Mary of Burgundy, and briefly succeeded to the Crown of Castile as the husband of Queen Joanna of Castile. He was the first Habsburg monarch in Spain.
John II the Great (June 29, 1397 – January 20, 1479) was the King of Aragon from 1458 until 1479, and jure uxoris King of Navarre from 1425 until his death. He was the son of Ferdinand I and his wife Eleanor of Alburquerque. John is regarded as one of the most memorable and most unscrupulous kings of the 15th century.
John I (August 24, 1358 – October 9, 1390) was the king of Castile, was the son of Henry II and of his wife Juana Manuel of Castile, daughter of Juan Manuel, Duke of Penafiel, head of a younger branch of the royal house of Castile. His first marriage, with Eleanor of Aragon on June 18, 1375, produced most of his issue, including the future Kings Henry III of Castile and Ferdinand I of Aragon.
Fulk (1089/1092 in Angers – 13 November 1143 in Acre), also known as Fulk the Younger, was Count of Anjou (as Fulk V) from 1109 to 1129, and King of Jerusalem from 1131 to his death. He was also the paternal grandfather of Henry II of England.
John of Brienne (c. 1170 – 27 March 1237) was a French nobleman who became John I King of Jerusalem by marriage, and was later invited to become John I Latin Emperor of Constantinople. He was the second son of Erard II, count of Brienne, in Champagne, and of Agnes de Montfaucon.
Conrad of Montferrat, or Conrad I of Jerusalem was a northern Italian nobleman, one of the major participants in the Third Crusade. He was the de facto King of Jerusalem, by marriage, from 24 November 1190, but officially elected only in 1192, days before his death. He was also marquis of Montferrat from 1191.
Martin I of Sicily (c. 1374/1376 — July 25, 1409), called "The Younger", was King of Sicily from 1390 to 1409. Martin's father was the future King Martin I of Aragon, and his grandparents were King Peter IV of Aragon and Eleanor of Sicily. In 1389/1390/February, 1392 he married Mary of Sicily, born in 1362/1363. In 1392 he returned with Mary to Sicily with a military force and defeated a group of opposing barons.
Henry II of Champagne or Henry I of Jerusalem (July 29, 1166 – September 10, 1197), was count of Champagne from 1181 to 1197, and king of Jerusalem from 1192 to 1197, although he never used the title of king.
Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (29 October 1816 – 15 December 1885), named Prince Ferdinand Augustus Francis Anthony of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha-Koháry, was King of Portugal as husband of Queen Maria II of Portugal from the birth of their son in 1837 to her death in 1853. In keeping with Portuguese law, only after the birth of his son in 1837 did he acquire the title of King, reigning as Ferdinand II of Portugal.
Philip III (27 March 1306 – 16 September 1343), called the Noble (el Noble) or the Wise, Count of Évreux (1319 – 1343) and King of Navarre (1328 – 1343), was the second son of Louis of Évreux and Marguerite d’Artois and therefore a grandson of King Philip III of France. Because of this descent, he was a possible heir to the throne of France.
Andrew, Duke of Calabria was the second surviving son of Charles I of Hungary and Elizabeth of Poland. He was betrothed in 1334, at a young age, to his cousin Joan I of Naples, daughter of Charles, Duke of Calabria (eldest son of king Robert of Naples), who was three years his senior. Robert had taken the throne of Naples while his older brother's son Charles was occupied in winning Hungary, and wished to atone for his usurpation.
Peter III (or Pedro III; July 5, 1717 – May 25, 1786) became King of the Kingdom of Portugal and Algarves by the accession of his wife and niece Queen Maria I in 1777, and co-reigned alongside her until his death. Peter was the younger son of John V of Portugal and Maria Anna of Austria. Peter was a younger brother of Joseph I of Portugal. Their maternal grandparents were Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, and Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg.