The First Vatican Council was convoked by Pope Pius IX on 29 June 1868, after a period of planning and preparation that began on 6 December 1864. This twentieth ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, held three centuries after the Council of Trent, opened on 8 December 1869 and adjourned on 20 October 1870.
The Immaculate Conception is, according to Roman Catholic doctrine, the conception of the Virgin Mary without any stain ("immacula" in Latin) of original sin. It is one of the four dogmas in Roman Catholic Mariology. Under this aspect Mary is sometimes called the Immaculata (the Immaculate One), particularly in artistic contexts.
The Old Catholic Church is a Christian denomination originating with mainly German-speaking groups that split from the Holy See in the 1870s because they disagreed with the solemn declaration of the doctrine of papal infallibility promulgated by the First Vatican Council (1869–1870). The church is not in formal communion with the Holy See, though the Union of Utrecht of Old Catholic Churches is in full communion with the Anglican Communion.
Blessed Pope Pius IX (13 May 1792 – 7 February 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was the longest reigning Pope in Church history, serving from 16 June 1846 until his death, a period of nearly 32 years. During his pontificate, he convened the First Vatican Council in 1869, which decreed Papal infallibility.
Pope Gregory XVI (18 September 1765 – 1 June 1846), born Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari, named Mauro as a member of the religious order of the Camaldolese, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 1831 to 1846. Strongly conservative and traditionalist, he opposed democratic and modernising reforms in the Papal States and throughout Europe, seeing them as fronts for revolutionary leftism, and sought to strengthen the religious and political authority of the papacy.
The Papal State(s), State(s) of the Church or Pontifical States were one of the major historical states of Italy from roughly the 6th century until the Italian peninsula was unified in 1861 by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia (after which the Papal States, in less territorially extensive form, continued to exist until 1870).
Nicholas Patrick Stephen Wiseman (1802–1865) was an English Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, who became the first Archbishop of Westminster upon the re-establishment of the Catholic hierarchy in England and Wales in 1850.
John McCloskey (March 10, 1810—October 10, 1885) was an Irish American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He was Archbishop of New York from 1864 until his death in 1885, having previously served as Bishop of Albany (1847-1864). He was the first American cardinal, created by Pope Pius IX in 1875.
Herbert Alfred Vaughan (1832–1903) was a British Catholic cardinal and Archbishop of Westminster. He was the founder in 1866 of St Joseph's Foreign Missionary College, informally called Mill Hill. He also founded the Catholic Truth Society. In 1871 Vaughan led a group of priests to the United States to form a mission society whose purpose was to administer to freedmen. In 1893 the society reorganized to form the US-based St. Joseph Society of the Sacred Heart. Vaughan also founded St.
Quanta Cura was a Papal encyclical issued by Pope Pius IX on December 8, 1864, which condemned several propositions relating to freedom of religion, freedom of speech, and the separation of church and state. There was an earlier encyclical of the same title, issued in 1741 by Pope Benedict XIV, forbidding traffic in alms.
Peter's Pence An ancient payment made more or less voluntarily to Rome, begun under the Saxons in England and seen also in other countries. Formally discontinued in England at the Reformation. A post-Reformation payment of uncertain characteristics, seen in some English manors into the 19th century. A revived custom of the Catholic church, formalised in 1871.
The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or just Zentrum) was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. The party dissolved itself on 5 July, 1933 as a condition of the conclusion of a Concordat between the Holy See and Germany. After World War II, the party was refounded, but could not rise again to its former importance, as most of its members joined the new Christian Democratic Union (CDU).
Edgardo Mortara (August 27, 1851 – March 11, 1940) was a Jewish, Catholic priest who became the center of an international controversy when he was kidnapped from his Jewish parents by authorities of the Papal States and raised as a Catholic. The seizure of the boy followed his emergency baptism by a domestic servant during a serious infantile illness.
The Roman Republic was a state declared on on February 9, 1849, when the government of Papal States was temporarily substituted by a republican government due by the pope's flight to Gaeta. The republic was led by Carlo Armellini, Giuseppe Mazzini and Aurelio Saffi. Together they formed a triumvirate, a reflection of a form of government seen in the ancient Roman Republic.
Gaeta is a city and comune in the province of Latina, in Lazio, central Italy. Set on a promontory stretching towards the Gulf of Gaeta, it is 120 km from Rome and 80 km from Naples. The town has played a conspicuous part in military history: its fortifications date back to Roman times, and it has several traces of the period, including the first-century mausoleum of the Roman general Lucius Munatius Plancus at the top of the Monte Orlando.
A prisoner in the Vatican or prisoner of the Vatican is how Pope Pius IX described himself following the capture of Rome by the armed forces of the Kingdom of Italy on 20 September 1870. Part of the process of Italian unification, the city's capture ended the millennial temporal rule of the popes over central Italy and allowed Rome to be designated the capital of the new nation. The appellation is also applied to Pius's successors through Pius XI.
Giacomo Antonelli (April 2, 1806 – November 6, 1876) was an Italian cardinal deacon. He was the Cardinal Secretary of State from 1848 until his death; he played a key role in Italian politics, resisting the unification of Italy and affecting Roman Catholic interests in European affairs. He was often called the "Italian Richelieu".
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Clifton is a Latin Rite Roman Catholic diocese centred around the Cathedral Church of Saints Peter and Paul in Clifton. The diocese covers the City and County of Bristol and the ceremonial counties of Gloucestershire, Somerset, and Wiltshire, an area of 4,215 square miles. Practically the Diocese stretches from Stow in the Wold in the north to Minehead & Watchet in the South.
The September Convention was a treaty, signed on 15 September 1864, between the Italian government and Napoleon III, under which: Napoleon III agreed to withdraw all French troops from Rome within two years. The Italian government guaranteed the frontiers of the Papal States, which at the time consisted of Rome and Latium.
The Papal conclave of 1878 resulted from the death of Pope Pius IX in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican on 7 February 1878. The conclave occurred in circumstances different from those of any previous conclave.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Westminster is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in England. The archdiocese consists of all the London boroughs north of the River Thames and west of the River Lea, together with the towns southwest of Staines and Sunbury-on-Thames and the County of Hertfordshire, which lies immediately to London's north.
Pellegrino Rossi (13 July 1787 – 15 November 1848) was an Italian economist, politician and jurist. He was an important figure of the July Monarchy in France, and the Minister of Justice in the government of the Papal States, under Pope Pius IX.