Valeria Messalina, sometimes spelled Messallina, (c. 17/20 – 48) was a Roman empress as the third wife of the Emperor Claudius. She was also a paternal cousin of the Emperor Nero, second cousin of the Emperor Caligula, and great-grandniece of the Emperor Augustus. A powerful and influential woman with a reputation for promiscuity, she conspired against her husband and was executed when the plot was discovered.
Priscillian, bishop of Ávila (died 385), a theologian from Roman Gallaecia, was the first person in the history of Christianity to be executed for heresy (though the civil charges were for the practice of magic). He founded an ascetic group that, in spite of persecution, continued to subsist in Hispania and Gaul until the later 6th century. Tractates by Priscillian and close followers, which had seemed certainly lost, were recovered in 1885 and published in 1889.
Lucius Aelius Seianus (20 BC – October 18, 31 AD), commonly known as Sejanus, was an ambitious soldier, friend and confidant of the Roman Emperor Tiberius. An equestrian by birth, Sejanus rose to power as prefect of the Roman imperial bodyguard, known as the Praetorian Guard, of which he was commander from 14 AD until his death in 31.
Proculus (d. c. 281) was a Roman usurper, one of the "minor pretenders" according to Historia Augusta; he took the purple against Emperor Probus in 280. Probably Proculus had family connection with the Franks, to whom he turned in vain when his bid for imperial power was failing. He was a native of Albingaunum. Though he was accounted a noble, his ancestors had been brigands and were the source of his vast wealth.
Jesus of Nazareth, also known as Jesus Christ or Jesus, is the central figure of Christianity, which views him as the Messiah foretold in the Old Testament, with most Christian denominations believing him to be the Son of God who was raised from the dead. Islam considers Jesus a prophet and also the Messiah. Several other religions revere him in some way. He is one of the most influential figures in human history.
Publius Petronius Turpilianus was a Roman politician and general. He was consul in AD 61, but in the second half of that year he laid down that office and was appointed governor of Britain, replacing Gaius Suetonius Paulinus who had been removed from office in the wake of the rebellion of Boudica. In contrast to Suetonius's punitive measures, Petronius took a conciliatory approach, and conducted few military operations.
Cassius Chaerea was a centurion in the army of Germanicus and served in the Praetorian Guard under the emperor Caligula, whom he eventually assassinated. According to Tacitus before his service in the Praetorians, he distinguished himself with his bravery and skill in helping to subdue the mutiny on the German frontier immediately after the death of Augustus.
Fabius Valens of Anagnia (d. 69) was a Roman commander favoured by Nero. In 69 he was commander of Legio I Germanica based in Germania Inferior. When the troops refused to endorse the new emperor Galba, he had them proclaim Vitellius, the governor of Germania Inferior, as emperor. The forces supporting Vitellius were divided into two armies for the march on Rome, one of them commanded by Valens.
The ten thousand martyrs of Mount Ararat were, according to a medieval legend, Roman soldiers who, led by Saint Acacius, converted to Christianity and were crucified on Mount Ararat in Armenia by order of the Roman emperor. The story is attributed to the ninth century scholar Anastasius Bibliothecarius.
Gamaliel VI (died 425) was the last nasi of the ancient Jewish Sanhedrin. Gamaliel came into office around the year 400. On 17 October 415, an edict issued by the Emperors Honorius and Theodosius II deposed Gamaliel as nasi because he had disregarded an earlier decree by Honorius, which had curtailed his privileges and the ban on the building of new synagogues and had adjudicated disputes between Jews and Christians.
Publius Quinctilius Varus Minor (Minor Latin for the younger) was the only child to Roman general and politician Publius Quinctilius Varus from his second marriage to Claudia Pulchra. Through his mother he was the first cousin to Roman Empress Valeria Messalina, her brother Marcus Valerius Messala Corvinus, second cousin to Messalina’s children Claudia Octavia and Britannicus. His second cousins were also Roman Emperor Augustus’ great grandchildren Aemilia Lepida and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus.
Locusta was a Roman serial killer during the first century A.D. Locusta, who is considered to be the first documented serial killer, was born in Gaul, which is an outer province of Rome now known as France. In A.D. 54, she may have been hired by Agrippina the Younger to kill the Emperor Claudius, possibly with a poisoned dish of mushrooms. In 55, she was convicted of poisoning another victim. When Nero learned of this he sent a tribune of the Praetorian Guard to rescue her from execution.
Marcia Aurelia Ceionia Demetrias, better known as Marcia, was the mistress and one of the assassins of 2nd century AD Roman Emperor Commodus from 182–93. Marcia was the daughter of Marcia Aurelius Sabinianus, a freedwoman of the co-emperor Lucius Verus.
Judas Cyriacus (Cyriacus of Ancona, Cyriacus of Jerusalem, Quiriacus, Quiricus, Kyriakos) (d. ca. AD 360) is the patron saint of Ancona, Italy. His feast day is celebrated in the Catholic Church on May 4.
"Milichus" redirects here. For the true dung beetle genus, see Milichus (beetle). Flavius Scaevinus, senator, was a member of the Pisonian conspiracy against Nero. It was through his freedman Milichus that Nero discovered the conspiracy. Milichus was liberally rewarded by the emperor, and Scaevinus put to death.
Lucius Vitellius (c. AD 16 - 69) was a Roman who lived in the 1st century. He was the second son of Lucius Vitellius the elder and Sextilia and younger brother of emperor Aulus Vitellius. He served a six-month Suffect consulship in 48. His first wife in 46 or 47 was Roman noble woman Junia Calvina, a descendant of Emperor Augustus, but they divorced before 49. His second wife was a Roman woman called Triaria. He had no issue from any of his marriages.
Johanan ben Ha-galgol is the name of a man whose remains in an ossuary were discovered by archaeologists in 1968 near Jerusalem. The remains show clearly that the man had been crucified. One of the notable facts about the discovery of this man's remains is that it proves crucifixion victims were nailed through their wrists, as opposed to the palms. Both the grave and the remains have been dated to between 7 A.D. and 70 A.D.
Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus (45-136) was a Spanish Roman politician. According to an inscription found, his full name is Gaius Julius Servilius Ursus Servianus, however in Augustan History, he is known as Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus. Little is known on his origins. Servianus was a prominent public figure in the reigns of Roman Emperors Nerva, Trajan and Hadrian.