The Challenger Deep is the deepest surveyed point in the oceans, with a depth of approximately 36,000ft(11,000)mThe error of measurement is less than a three hundred feet(one hundred metres). It is located at the southern end of the Mariana Trench near the Mariana Islands group. The Challenger Deep is a relatively small slot-shaped depression in the bottom of a considerably larger crescent-shaped trench, which itself is an unusually deep feature in the ocean floor.
The Dead Sea, also called the Salt Sea, is a salt lake bordering Israel and the West Bank to the west, and Jordan to the east. Its surface and shores are 422 metres (1,385 ft) below sea level, the lowest elevation on the Earth's surface on dry land. The Dead Sea is 378 m (1,240 ft) deep, the deepest hypersaline lake in the world. It is also one of the world's saltiest bodies of water, with 33.7% salinity.
Khunjerab Pass (elevation 4,693 metres) is a high mountain pass in the Karakorum Mountains on the northern border of Pakistan and the Xinjiang Autonmous Region of China. The name is derived from Wakhi for Blood Valley.
The Mariana Trench (or Marianas Trench) is the deepest known part of the world's oceans, and the lowest elevation of the surface of the Earth's crust. It is located in the western Pacific Ocean, to the east of the Mariana Islands. The trench is about 2,550 kilometres (1,580 mi) long but has a mean width of only 69 kilometres (43 mi). It reaches a maximum depth of about 11,033 metres (36,198 ft) at the Challenger Deep, a small slot-shaped valley in its floor, at its southern end.
The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is, subject to the caveats explained below, defined as the point in the northern hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets the Earth's surface. It should not be confused with the North Magnetic Pole. The North Pole is the northernmost point on Earth, lying diametrically opposite the South Pole. It defines geodetic latitude 90° North, as well as the direction of True North.
Mount Everest - also called Qomolangma Peak, Mount Sagarmāthā, Chajamlungma, Zhumulangma Peak or Mount Chomolungma - is the highest mountain on Earth above sea level, and the highest point on the Earth's continental crust, as measured by the height above sea level of its summit, 8,848 metres (29,029 ft). The mountain, which is part of the Himalaya range in Asia, is located on the border between Sagarmatha Zone, Nepal, and Tibet, China.
Death Valley is a desert located in the southwestern United States of America. Situated within the Mojave Desert, it features the lowest, driest, and hottest locations in North America. Badwater, a basin located within Death Valley, is the specific location of the lowest elevation in North America at 282 ft below sea level. This point is only 76 miles (123 km) east of Mount Whitney, the highest point in the contiguous United States with an elevation of 14,505 feet (4,421 m).
Lake Baikal is the world's second most voluminous lake, after the Caspian Sea. It is the most voluminous freshwater lake in the world with an average depth of 744.4 m (2,442 ft) and contains a total of roughly 20 percent of the world's surface fresh water. Located in the south of the Russian region of Siberia (between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast, near the city of Irkutsk), the body of water is also known as the "Pearl of Siberia".
Cape Dezhnyov or Cape Dezhnev is a cape that forms the easternmost mainland point of Eurasia, on the Chukchi Peninsula in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug of Russia. It is located between the Bering Sea and the Chukchi Sea, 82 km across from Cape Prince of Wales in Alaska. The Bering Strait lies in between and the Diomede Islands and Fairway Rock are located in the strait's midst.
Lake Vostok is the largest of more than 140 subglacial lakes found under the surface of Antarctica. It is located beneath Russia's Vostok Station, 4,000 meters (13,000 ft) under the surface of the central Antarctic ice sheet. It is 250 km long by 50 km wide at its widest point, thus similar in size to Lake Ontario, and is divided into two deep basins by a ridge.
Mauna Loa is the largest volcano on Earth in terms of volume and area covered and one of five volcanoes that form the Island of Hawaii in the U.S. state of Hawaiʻi in the Pacific Ocean. It is an active shield volcano, with a volume estimated at approximately 18,000 cubic miles (75,000 km), although its peak is about 120 feet (37 m) lower than that of its neighbor, Mauna Kea. The Hawaiian name "Mauna Loa" means "Long Mountain".
Mount Erebus in Antarctica is the southernmost historically active volcano on Earth. With a summit elevation of 3,794 metres (12,448 ft), it is located on Ross Island, which is also home to three inactive volcanoes, notably Mount Terror. Mount Erebus is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, which includes over 160 active volcanoes.
The Pacific Ring of Fire (or sometimes just the Ring of Fire) is an area where large numbers of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of a Pacific Ocean. In a 40,000 km horseshoe shape, it is associated with a nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches, volcanic arcs, and volcanic belts and/or plate movements. The Ring of Fire has 452 volcanoes and is home to over 75% of the world's active and dormant volcanoes.
Mount Elbrus is an inactive volcano located in the western Caucasus mountain range, in Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay-Cherkessia, Russia, near the border of Georgia. Mt. Elbrus's highest peak is the highest mountain in the Caucasus, in Russia, and in all of Europe. Mt. Elbrus stands at 5,642 metres (18,510 ft); the east summit is slightly lower at 5,621 metres (18,442 ft).
The coldest natural temperature ever recorded at the surface of the Earth was −89.2 °C (−129 °F; 184 K) at the Russian Vostok Station in Antarctica July 21, 1983. Lower temperatures have been achieved artificially, including a record cold temperature of 100 pK, or 1.0 × 10 K in 1999. In 1904 Dutch scientist Kamerlingh Onnes created a special lab in Leiden with the aim of producing liquid helium.
The inactive stratovolcano Chimborazo is Ecuador's highest summit. Its last eruption is thought to have occurred some time in the first millennium AD. Its summit is generally regarded as the spot on the surface farthest from the centre of the Earth, at a distance of 6,384.4 kilometres (3,967.1 mi).
Cape Wrath is a cape in Sutherland, Highland, in northern Scotland. It is the most northwesterly point on the island of Great Britain. The name Cape Wrath, though perhaps apt when taken in context of its remote and forbidding landscape and frequent rough sea, is derived from Old Norse hvarf ("turning point"). Vikings would often turn their ships for home at Cape Wrath. Cape Wrath is one of only two places prefixed with the name "Cape" in Great Britain, the other being Cape Cornwall in Cornwall.
Al 'Aziziyah or El Azizia is a city in and capital of Al Jfara District in northwestern Libya, 55 kilometres (34 mi) southwest of Tripoli. Prior to 2001 it was in Al 'Aziziyah District and its capital. Al 'Aziziyah is a major trade centre of the Sahel Jeffare plateau, being on a trade route from the coast to the Nafusa Mountains and the Fezzan region to the south. As of 2009, the city's population has been estimated at over 300,000.
Cape York Peninsula is a large peninsula located in Far North Queensland, Australia. This remote peninsula contains some of the last remaining wilderness areas on Earth, though about half of the land area is used for grazing cattle and much has been damaged by feral pigs, weeds, and other introduced species. Its relatively undisturbed tropical rainforests and savannas are now recognized for their global environmental significance.
Alert, in the Qikiqtaaluk Region, Nunavut, Canada, is the northernmost permanently inhabited place in the world. It is only 817 kilometres (508 mi) from the North Pole. It takes its name from HMS Alert, which wintered 10 km (6.2 mi) east of the present station off what is now Cape Sheridan, Nunavut in 1875-1876. Alert was reported to have 5 (five) permanent inhabitants according to the 2006 census.
Cape Byron is the easternmost point of the mainland of Australia and is one of the extreme points of Earth. It is located about 3 km (1.8 miles) northeast of the town of Byron Bay and projects into the Pacific Ocean.
Cape Prince of Wales is the westernmost point on the mainland of the Americas. Located on the Seward Peninsula of the U.S. state of Alaska near the city of Wales, Cape Prince of Wales is the terminus of the Continental Divide, marking the division between the Pacific and Arctic coasts, as well as marking the limit between the Bering Sea and the Chukchi Sea. It is the eastern boundary of the Bering Strait, 82 km opposite Cape Dezhnev, and adjacent to the Diomede Islands and Fairway Rock.
Cape Froward is the southernmost point on the mainland of South America. It is located in the North shores of Magellan Strait, being the southern tip of the Brunswick Peninsula; in Chilean territory. It was the English corsair, Thomas Cavendish, in January 1587, named the place, after the climate's roughness with rains and winds.
Eureka is a small research base on Fosheim Peninsula, Ellesmere Island, Qikiqtaaluk Region, in the Canadian territory of Nunavut. It is located on the north side of Slidre Fiord, which enters Eureka Sound farther west. It is the second-northernmost permanent research community in the world. The only one farther north is Alert, which is also on Ellesmere Island.
North Cape is a cape on the island of Magerøya in northern Norway, in the municipality of Nordkapp. Its 307 m high, steep cliff is often referred to as the northernmost point of Europe, located at 71°10′21″N 25°47′40″E / 71.1725°N 25.79444°E / 71.1725; 25.79444, 2102.3 km from the North Pole. However, the neighbouring point Knivskjellodden is actually 1,457 metres further north.