Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by the pseudonym Lewis Carroll, was an English author, mathematician, logician, Anglican deacon and a photographer. His most famous writings are Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and its sequel Through the Looking-Glass, as well as the poems "The Hunting of the Snark" and "Jabberwocky", all examples of the genre of literary nonsense.
John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), English philosopher, political theorist, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential British Classical liberal thinker of the 19th century whose works on liberty justified freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state control. He was a proponent of utilitarianism, an ethical theory developed by Jeremy Bentham, although his conception of it was very different from Bentham's.
William Harrison Riker (September 22, 1920 – June 26, 1993) was an American political scientist who applied game theory and mathematics to political science. Riker was born in Des Moines, Iowa, and received his Ph. D at Harvard University in 1948. He took on a professorship at Lawrence University in Appleton, Wisconsin (then Lawrence College), where he published The Theory of Political Coalitions (1962).
Maurice Duverger (born June 5, 1917) is a French jurist, sociologist and politician. He was born in Angoulême, Charente. Starting his career as a jurist at the University of Bordeaux, Duverger became more and more involved in political science and in 1948 founded one of the first faculties for political science in Bordeaux, France.
Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat, marquis de Condorcet (17 September 1743 – 28 March 1794), known as Nicolas de Condorcet, was a French philosopher, mathematician, and early political scientist who devised the concept of a Condorcet method. Unlike many of his contemporaries, he advocated a liberal economy, free and equal public education, constitutionalism, and equal rights for women and people of all races.
Kenneth Joseph Arrow (born August 23, 1921) is an American economist and joint winner of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics with John Hicks in 1972. To date, he is the youngest person to have received this award, at 51. In economics, he is considered an important figure in post-World War II neo-classical economic theory. Many of his former graduate students have gone on to win the Nobel Memorial Prize themselves. Ken Arrow's impact on the economics profession has been tremendous.
Steven J. Brams (born November 28, 1940) is a game theorist and political scientist at the New York University department of politics. Brams is best known for using the techniques of game theory and public choice to research voting systems and fair division. He is one of the independent discoverers of approval voting. Also, he was a co-discoverer, with Alan Taylor of the first envy-free solution to the n-person cake cutting problem.
Duncan Black (23 May 1908 – 14 January 1991) was a Scottish economist who laid the foundations of social choice theory. In particular he was responsible for unearthing the work of many early political scientists, including Charles Dodgson, and was responsible for the Black electoral system, a Condorcet method whereby, in the absence of a Condorcet winner (e.g. due to a cycle), the Borda winner is chosen.
T. Nicolaus Tideman (born August 11, 1943 in Chicago, Illinois) is a Professor of Economics at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. He received his Bachelor of Arts in economics and mathematics from Reed College in 1965 and his PhD in economics from the University of Chicago in 1969.
Peter C. Fishburn (born 1936) is known as a pioneer in the field of decision-making processes. He received his B.S. in industrial engineering from Pennsylvania State University in 1958, his M.S. in operations research in 1961, and a Ph. D in operations research in 1962, the latter two from the Case Institute of Technology. In collaboration with Steven Brams, he devised approval voting in 1977. In 1996, he won the John von Neumann Prize.
Sir Robert Milton Worcester, KBE, DL (born December 21, 1933) is the founder of the MORI polling and research organisation, and a member and contributor to many voluntary organisations. He is a well known figure in British public opinion research and political circles and as a media commentator, especially about voting intentions in elections.
Donald Gene Saari (born March 1940 in Houghton, Michigan) is the Distinguished Professor of Mathematics and Economics and director of the Institute for Mathematical Behavioral Sciences at the University of California Irvine. He received his Bachelor of Science in Mathematics in 1962 from Michigan Technological University, his Master of Science and PhD in Mathematics from Purdue University in 1964 and 1967, respectively.
Marc Hetherington is an American political scientist. He is an Associate Professor of Political Science at Vanderbilt University. Dr. Hetherington's research implies that decline in public support for social welfare policies is not due to an increase in conservatism but instead a decline in political trust. The implication of this research is that Bill Clinton could have successfully pursued more aggressive social policies during his second term.
Ken Ritchie (born 1946) is a British psephologist, and the current Chief Executive of the Electoral Reform Society. Born in Glasgow, Scotland, he graduated from the University of Edinburgh with a degree in mathematics before spending 18 months teaching in Tanzania. After that he returned to Britain to complete a PhD on the policies and decision-making methods of voluntary organisations in Africa.