Roland Freisler (October 30, 1893 – February 3, 1945) was a prominent and notorious Nazi judge. He became State Secretary of Adolf Hitler's Reich Ministry of Justice and President of the Volksgerichtshof (People's Court), which was set up outside constitutional authority. This court handled political actions against Hitler's dictatorial regime by conducting a series of show trials.
Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848 – 26 July 1925) was a German mathematician who became a logician and philosopher. He was one of the founders of modern logic, and made major contributions to the foundations of mathematics. As a philosopher, he is generally considered to be the father of analytic philosophy, for his writings on the philosophy of language and mathematics.
Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander Freiherr von Humboldt (September 14, 1769 – May 6, 1859) was a German naturalist and explorer, and the younger brother of the Prussian minister, philosopher, and linguist, Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835). Humboldt's quantitative work on botanical geography was foundational to the field of biogeography.
Georg Ernst Stahl (October 22, 1659 – May 24, 1734) was a German chemist and physician. He was born at Ansbach. Having graduated in medicine at the University of Jena in 1683, he became court physician to Duke Johann Ernst of Sachsen Weimar in 1687. From 1694 to 1716 he held the chair of medicine at Halle, and was then appointed physician to King Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia in Berlin. It was in Berlin that he died.
Johann Matthias Gesner (9 April 1691 – 3 August 1761) was a German classical scholar and schoolmaster. He was born at Roth an der Rednitz near Ansbach. His father, Johann Samuel Gesner, a pastor in Auhausen, died in 1704, leaving the family in straitened circumstances. Gesner's mother, Maria Magdalena (born Hußwedel), remarried, and Johann Matthias's stepfather, Johann Zuckermantel, proved supportive. Noticing the boy's gifts, he prepared him for the Ansbach Gymnasium.
Hermann Samuel Reimarus (December 22, 1694, Hamburg – March 1, 1768, Hamburg), was a German philosopher and writer of the Enlightenment who is remembered for his Deism, the doctrine that human reason can arrive at a knowledge of God and ethics from a study of nature and our own internal reality, thus eliminating the need for religions based on revelation. He denied the reality of miracles and is credited by some with initiating historians' investigation of the historical Jesus.
Kaspar von Barth (June 21, 1587 – September 17, 1658) was a German philologist and writer. Barth was born at Küstrin in the Neumark region of Brandenburg. A precocious child, he was looked upon as a marvel of learning. After studying at Gotha, Eisenach, Wittenberg, and Jena, he travelled extensively, visiting most of the countries of Europe. Too independent to accept any regular post, he lived alternately at Halle and on his property at in Leipzig.
Baron Samuel von Pufendorf (January 8, 1632 – October 13, 1694) was a German jurist, political philosopher, economist, statesman, and historian. His name was just Samuel Pufendorf until he was ennobled in 1684; he was made a Freiherr a few months before his death in 1694. Among his achievements are his commentaries and revisions of the natural law theories of Thomas Hobbes and Hugo Grotius.
Johann Friedrich Herbart (May 4, 1776 – August 11, 1841) was a German philosopher, psychologist, and founder of pedagogy as an academic discipline. Herbart is now remembered amongst the post-Kantian philosophers mostly as making the greatest contrast to Hegel; this in particular in relation to aesthetics. That does not take into account his thought on education.
Johann Gottfried Jakob Hermann (28 November 1772 – 31 December 1848) was a German classical scholar and philologist. He was born at Leipzig. Entering the university of his native city at the age of fourteen, Hermann at first studied law, which he soon abandoned for the classics. After a session at Jena in 1793–1794, he became a lecturer on classical literature in Leipzig, in 1798 professor extraordinarius of philosophy in the university, and in 1803 professor of eloquence.
Heinrich Christian Boie (19 July 1744 – 3 March 1806) was a German author. He was born at Meldorf in Holstein (at the time a part of the Danish monarchy). After studying law at Jena, he went in 1769 to Göttingen, where he became one of the leading spirits in the Göttingen "Dichterbund" or "Hain. " Boie's poetic talent was mediocre, but his thorough knowledge of literature, his taste and judgment, made him an inspiration to others.
Carl Zeiss (September 11, 1816 – December 3, 1888) was an optician commonly known for the company he founded, Carl Zeiss Jena. Zeiss made contributions to lens manufacturing that have aided the modern production of lenses. Raised in Weimar, Germany, he became a notable lens maker in the 1840s when he created high quality lenses that were "wide open", or in other words, had a very large aperture range that allowed for very bright images.
Johann Samuel Ersch (June 23, 1766 – January 16, 1828) was a German bibliographer, generally regarded as the founder of German bibliography. He was born at Großglogau, in Silesia. In 1785 he entered the University of Halle with the view of studying theology; but soon became more interested in history, bibliography and geography.
Christoph Wilhelm Friedrich Hufeland (August 12, 1762 – August 25, 1836) was a German physician. He is famous as the most eminent practical physician of his time in Germany and as the author of numerous works displaying extensive reading and a cultivated critical faculty. He was born at Langensalza, Thuringia and educated at Weimar, where his father held the office of court physician to the grand duchess.
Ferdinand Tönnies (July 26, 1855, near Oldenswort - April 9, 1936, Kiel, Germany) was a German sociologist. He was a major contributor to sociological theory and field studies, as well as bringing Thomas Hobbes back on the agenda, by publishing his manuscripts. He is best known for his distinction between two types of social groups — Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft.
Friedrich Hermann Hund (4 February 1896 - 31 March 1997) was a German physicist from Karlsruhe known for his work on atoms and molecules. Hund worked at the Universities of Rostock, Leipzig, Jena, Frankfurt am Main, and Göttingen. Hund worked with such prestigious physicists as Schrödinger, Dirac, Heisenberg, Max Born, and Walter Bothe. At that time, he was Born's assistant, working with quantum interpretation of band spectra of diatomic molecules.
Hermann von der Hardt (November 15, 1660 – February 28, 1746) was a German historian and orientalist. He was born at Melle, in Westphalia. He studied oriental languages at the universities of Jena and Leipzig, and in 1690 he was called to the chair of oriental languages at Helmstedt. He resigned his position in 1727, but lived at Helmstedt until his death.
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (May 11, 1752 – January 22, 1840) was a German physician, physiologist and anthropologist, one of the first to explore the study of mankind as an aspect of natural history, whose teachings in comparative anatomy were applied to classification of what he called human races, of which he determined five.
Johannes Schmidt (July 29, 1843 – July 4, 1901) was a German linguist. He developed the Wellentheorie of language development. Schmidt was born in Prenzlau, Province of Brandenburg. He studied philology with the great Indo-Europeanist August Schleicher and specialized in Indo-European, especially Slavic, languages. He earned a doctorate in 1865 and worked from 1866 as a teacher at a gymnasium in Berlin.