Daniel Jones (12 September 1881 – 4 December 1967) was a London-born British phonetician. A pupil of Paul Passy, professor of phonetics at the École des Hautes Études at the Sorbonne, Daniel Jones is considered by many to be the greatest phonetician of the early 20th century.
Jean-Jacques Ampère (12 August 1800 – 27 March 1864) was a French philologist and man of letters. Born in Lyon, he was the only son of the physicist André-Marie Ampère. Jean-Jacques' mother died while he was an infant. He studied the folk-songs and popular poetry of the Scandinavian countries in an extended tour in northern Europe. Returning to France in 1830, he delivered a series of lectures on Scandinavian and early German poetry at the Athenaeum in Marseille.
Jacques Marie Émile Lacan (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst and psychiatrist who made prominent contributions to psychoanalysis, philosophy, and literary theory. He gave yearly seminars, in Paris, from 1953 to 1981, mostly influencing France's intellectuals in the 1960s and the 1970s, especially the post-structuralist philosophers.
Marc Léopold Benjamin Bloch (July 6, 1886 in Lyon – June 16, 1944 in Saint-Didier-de-Formans) was a medieval historian, University Professor and French Army officer. Bloch was a founder of the Annales School, best known for his pioneering studies French Rural History and Feudal Society and his posthumously-published unfinished meditation on the writing of history, The Historian's Craft.
Marie Skłodowska Curie (7 November 1867 – 4 July 1934) was a physicist and chemist of Polish upbringing and, subsequently, French citizenship. She was a pioneer in the field of radioactivity, the first person honored with two Nobel Prizes, receiving one in physics and later, one in chemistry. She was the first woman to serve as professor at the University of Paris. She was born Maria Skłodowska in Warsaw and lived there until she was twenty-four years old.
Abbé Nicolas Louis de Lacaille (March 15, 1713 – March 21, 1762) was a French astronomer. He is noted for his catalogue of nearly 10,000 southern stars, including 42 nebulous objects. This catalogue, called Coelum Australe Stelliferum, was published posthumously in 1763. It introduced 14 new constellations which have since become standard. He also calculated a table of eclipses for 1800 years.
Pierre Curie (15 May 1859 – 19 April 1906) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity, and Nobel laureate. In 1903 he received the Nobel Prize in Physics with his wife, Maria Skłodowska-Curie, and Henri Becquerel, "in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel."
Maurice Duverger (born June 5, 1917) is a French jurist, sociologist and politician. He was born in Angoulême, Charente. Starting his career as a jurist at the University of Bordeaux, Duverger became more and more involved in political science and in 1948 founded one of the first faculties for political science in Bordeaux, France.
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (also Louis Joseph Gay-Lussac, 6 December 1778 – 9 May 1850) was a French chemist and physicist. He is known mostly for two laws related to gases, and for his work on alcohol-water mixtures, which led to the degrees Gay-Lussac used to measure alcoholic beverages in many countries.
Pierre Bourdieu (1 August 1930 – 23 January 2002) was a French sociologist. Bourdieu pioneered investigative frameworks and terminologies such as cultural, social, and symbolic capital, and the concepts of habitus, field or location, and symbolic violence to reveal the dynamics of power relations in social life. His work emphasized the role of practice and embodiment or forms in social dynamics and worldview construction, often in opposition to universalized Western philosophical traditions.
Paul Janet (April 30, 1823 - 4 October 1899) was a French philosopher and writer. Born in Paris, he became professor of moral philosophy at Bourges (1845-1848) and Strasbourg (1848-1857), and of logic at the lycée Louis-le-Grand, Paris (1857-1864). In 1864 he was appointed to the chair of philosophy at the Sorbonne, and elected a member of the academy of moral and political sciences.
Émile Edmond Saisset (September 16, 1814 - December 17, 1863) was a French philosopher. He was born at Montpellier. He studied philosophy at the École Normale Supérieure, and carried on the eclectic tradition of his master along with Ravaisson and Jules Simon. He was professor of philosophy at Caen, at the École Normale in Paris and later at the Sorbonne.
Jean-Philibert Damiron (10 January 1794 – 11 January 1862) was a French philosopher. He was born at Belleville. At nineteen he entered the normal school, where he studied under Eugène Burnouf, Abel-Francois Villemain, and Victor Cousin. After teaching for several years in provincial towns, he came to Paris, where he lectured on philosophy in various institutions, and finally became professor in the normal school, and titular professor at the Sorbonne.
Nicolas Eugène Géruzez (January 6, 1799 - May 29, 1865), was a French critic. He was born at Reims. He was assistant professor at the Sorbonne, and in 1852 he became secretary to the faculty of literature.
Arsène Darmesteter (1846–1888) was a distinguished philologist and man of letters. He studied under Gaston Paris at the École des Hautes Etudes, and became professor of Old French language and literature at the Sorbonne. His Life of Words appeared in English in 1888. He also collaborated with Adolphe Hatzfeld in a Dictionnaire général de la langue française (2 vols. , 1895-1900).
Louis Auguste Sabatier (October 22, 1839 - April 12, 1901), French Protestant theologian, was born at Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, in the Cévennes, and was educated at the Protestant theological faculty of Montauban and the universities of Tübingen and Heidelberg. After holding the pastorate at Aubenas in the Ardèche from 1864 to 1868 he was appointed professor of reformed dogmatics in the theological faculty of Strasbourg.
Numa Denis Fustel de Coulanges (18 March 1830 - 12 September 1889) was a French historian. Born in Paris, of Breton descent, after studying at the École Normale Supérieure he was sent to the French school at Athens in 1853, he directed some excavations in Chios, and wrote an historical account of the island.
Fernand Braudel (August 24, 1902 – November 27, 1985), was the foremost French historian of the postwar era, and a leader of the Annales School. His scholarship focused on three great projects, each representing several decades of intense study: "The Mediterranean" (1923–49, then 1949–66), "Civilization and Capitalism" (1955–79), and the unfinished, "Identity of France" (1970–85).
Julien Louis Geoffroy (1743 – 27 February 1814) was a French literary critic. He was born at Rennes, and educated there and at the Collège Louis le Grand in Paris. He took orders and for some time was a mere usher, eventually becoming professor of rhetoric at the Collège des Quatre-Nations. His tragedy, Caton, was accepted at the Théâtre Français, but was never performed.
Jacques Salomon Hadamard (December 8, 1865 – October 17, 1963) was a French mathematician who made major contributions in number theory, complex function theory, differential geometry and partial differential equations.