The House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen is the cadet branch of the senior Swabian branch of the Hohenzollern dynasty, less known than the Franconian branch which became Burgraves of Nuremberg and later ruled Brandenburg-Prussia and the German Empire. The state which the cadet branch ruled was the County of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, which later became a principality (Fürstentum Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen).
Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a duchy and later grand duchy in northern Germany, consisting of the eastern fifth of the historic Mecklenburg region, roughly corresponding with the present-day Mecklenburg-Strelitz district (the former Lordship of Stargard), and the western exclave of the former Bishopric of Ratzeburg in modern Schleswig-Holstein. At the time of its establishment, the duchy bordered on the territory of Swedish Pomerania in the north and of Brandenburg in the south.
Mecklenburg-Schwerin was a duchy in northern Germany since 1348, when Albert II of Mecklenburg and his younger brother John were raised to Dukes of Mecklenburg by King Charles IV. Ruled by the successors of the Nikloting House of Mecklenburg, Mecklenburg-Schwerin remained a relatively poor state of the Holy Roman Empire along the Baltic littoral between Holstein and Pomerania.
Reuss was the name of several historical states located in present-day Thuringia, Germany. Its rulers, the Reuss family, named all of their male children Heinrich since the end of the 12th century in honour of Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor (1190–97), to whom they owed the estates of Weida and Gera. The head of each branch of the family bore the German title Fürst (Prince) as did their children.
Baden is a historical state on the east bank of the Rhine River in the southwest of Germany, now the western part of the Baden-Württemberg (state) of Germany. It came into existence in the 12th century as the Margraviate of Baden and subsequently split into different lines, which were unified in 1771.
Berg functioned as an independent state from the 12th to the 17th centuries in part of the area of present-day North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany. Berg lay roughly between the rivers Rhine, Ruhr and Sieg. The region retains its medieval name, Bergisches Land.
Lippe is a Kreis in the east of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Neighboring districts are Herford, Minden-Lübbecke, Schaumburg, Hameln-Pyrmont, Holzminden, Höxter, Paderborn, Gütersloh, and district-free Bielefeld. The district of Lippe is named after the Lords of Lippe and their Principality of Lippe. It was a state within the Holy Roman Empire and today is a district of North Rhine-Westphalia.
Waldeck (or later Waldeck and Pyrmont) was a sovereign principality in the German Empire and German Confederation and, until 1929, a constituent state of the Weimar Republic. It comprised territories in present-day Hesse and Lower Saxony,.
The Grand Duchy of Frankfurt was a German satellite state of Napoleonic creation. It came into existence in 1810 through the combination of the former territories of the Archbishops of Mainz along with the Imperial city of Frankfurt itself. Frankfurt lost its status as an imperial free city in 1806 with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. The city was granted to the previous Archbishop of Mainz, Karl Theodor Anton Maria von Dalberg, and became the Principality of Frankfurt.
Oldenburg is a historical state in today's Germany named for its capital, Oldenburg. Oldenburg existed from 1180 until 1918 as a county, duchy and grand duchy. It was located near the mouth of the River Weser. Its ruling family was the House of Oldenburg, which also acquired Denmark and Russia.
The Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach was created in 1809 by the merger of the Ernestine duchies of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach, which had been in personal union since 1741, when the Saxe-Eisenach line had died out. It became a Grand Duchy in 1815. In 1877, it officially changed its name to the Grand Duchy of Saxony, but this name was rarely used. The Grand Duchy came to an end in 1918 with the other German monarchies, and the state was merged into the new state of Thuringia two years later.
The Kingdom of Saxony, lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic through post-Napoleonic Germany. From 1871 it was part of the German Empire. It became a Free state in the era of Weimar Republic in 1918 after the end of World War I and the abdication of King Frederick Augustus III of Saxony. Its capital was the city of Dresden, and its modern successor state is the Free State of Saxony.
The Principality of Regensburg was a principality within the Holy Roman Empire and the Confederation of the Rhine which existed between 1803 and 1810. Its capital was the city of Regensburg, now in Bavaria, Germany. The principality was created for Karl Theodor von Dalberg, the Prince-Primate of the Empire and the former Archbishop of Mainz, due to the annexation of Mainz itself by the French under the Treaty of Lunéville.
The Kingdom of Westphalia was a historical state that existed from 1807-1813 in parts of present-day Germany. While formally independent, it was a vassal state of the First French Empire, ruled by Napoléon's brother Jérôme Bonaparte. It was named after Westphalia, but had little territory in common with that area.
Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck was a small County of the Holy Roman Empire. Its territory was the area around Dyck in present North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck was a partition of Salm-Reifferscheid, and was annexed by the First French Empire in the French Revolutionary Wars, in 1811. The county was mediatised to Kingdom of Prussia in 1813, of which Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck became a princely title three years later.
Isenburg was a region of Germany located in southern present-day Hesse, located in territories north and south of Frankfurt. The states of Isenburg emerged from the Niederlahngau (located in the Rhineland-Palatinate), which partitioned in 1137 into Isenburg-Isenburg and Isenburg-Limburg-Covern. These countships were partitioned between themselves many times over the next 700 years.
Anhalt-Köthen has existed on two separate occasions. The first state was created in 1396 when the Anhalt-Zerbst was partitioned between Anhalt-Dessau and Anhalt-Köthen. The first creation lasted until 1552 when it was inherited by Anhalt-Dessau. It was created for a second time in 1603 with the partition of Anhalt-Zerbst. With the death of Prince Augustus Louis in 1774 the principality was split, with the new state of Anhalt-Pless being created. In 1806 Anhalt-Köthen was raised to a Duchy.