Diego de Almagro, also known as El Adelantado and El Viejo (The Elder), was a Spanish conquistador and a companion and later rival of Francisco Pizarro. He participated in the Spanish conquest of Peru and is credited as the first European discoverer of Chile. Almagro lost his left eye battling with coastal natives in the New World. In 1525 he joined the Pizarro brothers and Hernándo de Luque at Panama for the conquest of Peru.
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 in Ferrol – 20 November 1975 in Madrid), commonly known as Francisco Franco, or simply Franco, was a military general, and head of state of Spain from October 1936 (whole country from 1939 on), and de facto regent of the nominally restored Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in November 1975. As head of state, Franco used the title Caudillo de España, por la gracia de Dios, meaning; Leader of Spain, by the grace of God.
Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro, 1st Marquis of the Valle de Oaxaca (1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the King of Castile, in the early 16th century. Cortés was part of the generation of Spanish colonizers that began the first phase of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
Tomás de Zumalacárregui y de Imaz (1788–1835), Spanish Carlist general, was born at Ormaiztegi in Guipúzcoa, Basque Country, on 29 December 1788. His father, Francisco Antonio Zumalacárregui, was a lawyer who possessed some property, and the son was articled to a solicitor.
Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras was a Spanish conquistador and governor of Guatemala. Known for his skill as a soldier, Alvarado's cruelty to native populations is represented in various sources, including the Lienzo de Quauhquechollan, wherein his conquest is depicted. This document shows that he enslaved natives, and murdered them by means such as hanging, burning, and throwing them to dogs.
Charles III was the King of Spain and of the Spanish Indies from 1759 to 1788. He was the eldest son of Philip V of Spain and his second wife, the Princess Elisabeth of Parma. In 1731, the fifteen-year-old Charles became the Duke of Parma and Piacenza, as Charles I, at the death of his childless great uncle Antonio Farnese, Duke of Parma.
Miguel López de Legazpi (1502 — August 20, 1572), also known as El Adelantado (The Governor) and El Viejo (The Elder), was a Spanish conquistador who established one of the first European settlements in the East Indies and the Pacific Islands in 1565. After obtaining peace with various indigenous tribes, López de Legazpi made the Philippines the capital of the Spanish East Indies in 1571.
Henry Joseph O'Donnell y Mareschal, Count of La Bisbal, Spanish soldier, was descended from Joseph O´Donnell y O´ Donnell, (1722 - 1787) Colonel of the Spanish Regiment Irlanda, Lieu - Tenant General of the Spanish Army. O'Donnell was the brother of Carlos O´Donnell y Mareschal, the father of general and politician Leopoldo O´Donnell y Jorris (invested as Duke of Tetouan and Count of Lucena), and father of Lieutenant General of the Spanish Army Enrique O´Donnell y Jorris.
Antonio de Ulloa (12 January 1716 – 3 July 1795) was a Spanish general, explorer, author, astronomer, colonial administrator and the first Spanish governor of Louisiana. He was born in Seville, the son of an economist. Ulloa entered the navy in 1733.
Lamoral, Count of Egmont, Prince of Gavere (November 18, 1522, La Hamaide near Ellezelles – June 5, 1568, Brussels) was a general and statesman in Flanders just before the start of the Eighty Years' War, whose execution helped spark the national uprising that eventually led to the independence of the Netherlands. The Count of Egmont headed one of the wealthiest and most powerful families in the Low Countries.
José Fernando de Abascal y Sousa, 1st Marquis of La Concordia, (sometimes spelled Souza) was a Spanish military officer and colonial administrator in America. From August 20, 1806 to July 7, 1816 he was viceroy of Peru, during the Spanish American wars of independence.
Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3rd Duke of Alba(29 October 1507 – 11 December 1582), was a Spanish general and governor of the Spanish Netherlands (1567–1573), nicknamed "the Iron Duke" by the Protestants of the Low Countries because of his harsh rule and cruelty. Tales of atrocities committed during his military operations in Flanders became part of Flemish, Dutch and English folklore, forming a new and central component of the Black Legend.
General José Moscardó Ituarte (October 26, 1878, Madrid - April 12, 1956, Madrid), later Count of the Alcázar de Toledo, was the military Governor of Toledo Province during the Spanish Civil War. He sided with the Nationalist army fighting the Republican government and his most notable action was the defence and holding of the Alcázar of Toledo against Republican forces.
Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, Duke of Terranova and Santangelo, also known simply as Gonzalo de Córdoba, was a Spanish general in the service of the reign, when it was rising to military pre-eminence. He was called El Gran Capitán ("The Great Captain") by contemporaries and "the Father of Trench Warfare" by some. He was also the principle developer of tercio infantry. He is considered by many historians as one of the best generals in history.
John of Austria (24 February, 1547 - 1 October 1578), in English traditionally known as Don John of Austria, and in Spanish as Don Juan de Austria, was an illegitimate son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. He became a military leader in the service of his half-brother, Philip of Spain and is best known for his naval victory at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.
Esteban Rodriguez Miró y Sabater (1744 – June 4, 1795), also known as Esteban Miro and Estevan Miro, was a Spanish army officer and governor of the Spanish American provinces of Louisiana and Florida. Rodríguez Miró was one of the most popular of the Spanish governors largely because of his prompt response to the Great New Orleans Fire (1788) which destroyed almost all of the city.
Don Leopoldo O'Donnell y Jorris, 1st Duke of Tetuan, 1st Count of Lucena, 1st Viscount of Aliaga, (January 12, 1809 – November 5, 1867), Spanish general and statesman. He was of Irish paternal descent, a descendant of Calvagh O'Donnell, chieftain of Tyrconnell.
Prince Octavio Piccolomini, 1st Duke of Amalfi (November 11, 1599 – August 11, 1656), Austrian Generalfeldmarschall, was born in Florence, and carried a pike in the Spanish service at the age of sixteen. Two years later, on the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War in Bohemia, he was appointed a captain in a cavalry regiment sent by the grand duke of Tuscany to the emperor's army, and he fought with some distinction under Bucquoy at the battle of White Mountain in 1620 and in Hungary.
John of Austria (the Younger) (April 7, 1629 – September 17, 1679) was a Spanish general and political figure. He was the only natural son of Philip IV of Spain to be acknowledged by the King and trained for military command and political administration. Don John advanced the causes of Castile militarily and diplomatically at Naples, Sicily, Catalonia, the Netherlands, Portugal, Dunkirk and other fronts, and remained a significant popular hero even as Imperial Spain began its fall.