Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov was an eminent Soviet nuclear physicist, dissident and human rights activist. Sakharov was an advocate of civil liberties and reforms in the Soviet Union. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1975.
Zhores Ivanovich Alferov (born March 15, 1930) is a Russian physicist and academic who contributed significantly to the creation of modern heterostructure physics and electronics. He is an inventor of the heterotransistor and the winner of 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics. He is also a Russian politician and has been a member of the Russian State Parliament, the Duma, since 1995. Lately, he has become one of the most influential members of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation.
Mikhail Alekseevich Lavrentyev or Lavrentiev (November 19, 1900, Kazan – October 15, 1980, Moscow) was an outstanding Soviet mathematician and hydrodynamicist. Lavrentiev was born in Kazan, where his father was an instructor at a college (he later became a professor at Kazan University, then Moscow University). Lavrentiev entered Kazan University, and, when his family moved to Moscow in 1921, he transferred to the Department of Physics and Mathematics of Moscow University.
Igor Dmitriyevich Novikov (born November 10, 1935 in Moscow) is a Russian theoretical astrophysicist and cosmologist. Novikov formulated the Novikov self-consistency principle in the mid-1980s, an important contribution to the theory of time travel. Novikov gained his Ph.D. degree in astrophysics in 1965 and the Russian D. Sc. degree in astrophysics in 1970. From 1974 to 1990 he was head of the Department of Relativistic Astrophysics at the Russian Space Research Institute in Moscow.
Vladimir Andreevich Steklov was a Soviet/Russian mathematician, mechanician and physicist. Steklov was born in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. In 1887, he graduated from the Kharkov University, where he was a student of Aleksandr Lyapunov. In 1889-1906 he worked at the Department of Mechanics of this University. He became a full professor in 1896. During 1893 - 1905 he also taught theoretical mechanics in the Kharkov Technological Institute (now known as Kharkiv Polytechnical Institute).
Alexander Mikhaylovich Prokhorov (11 July 1916 – 8 January 2002) was a Soviet/Russian physicist. He was born in Atherton, Queensland, to a family of Russian immigrants. He and his parents relocated to the Soviet Union in 1923. In June 1941, he started to serve in the Soviet Army. He took part in the Second World War. He was wounded twice. After his second injury in 1944, he was demobilized. Prokhorov was a physicist and professor at the Moscow State University.
Nikolai Nikolayevich Rukavishnikov was a Soviet cosmonaut who flew three space missions of the Soyuz programme: Soyuz 10, Soyuz 16, and Soyuz 33. Two of these missions, Soyuz 10 and Soyuz 33 were intended to dock with Salyut space stations, but failed to do so. Rukavishnikov studied at the Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute and after graduation worked for Sergey Korolev's design bureau. He was selected for cosmonaut training in 1967.
Igor Vasilyevich Kurchatov was a Soviet/Russian nuclear physicist. He was the leader of the Soviet atomic bomb project. He was one of the central figures in the Soviet nuclear program. He is best known for his role as a director of the nascent Soviet nuclear program. He led a team of Soviet scientists in developing and building a nuclear weapon program. Under his direction the Soviet Union successfully tested its first plutonium-based nuclear device, First Lightning in 1949.
Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa (Russian Пётр Леони́дович Капи́ца) (July 9 1894 – 8 April 1984) was an innovative Soviet/Russian physicist and Nobel laureate, who made important discoveries in several different areas. Kapitsa was born of Romanian parents in the city of Kronstadt and graduated from the Petrograd Polytechnical Institute in 1918. He worked for over ten years with Ernest Rutherford in the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge.
Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg was a Russian theoretical physicist, astrophysicist, Nobel laureate, a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and one of the fathers of Soviet hydrogen bomb. He was the successor to Igor Tamm as head of the Department of Theoretical Physics of the Academy's physics institute, and an outspoken atheist.
Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov (born June 25, 1928) is a Russian theoretical physicist whose main contributions are in the field of condensed matter physics. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2003.
Rashid Alievich Sunyaev was born in Tashkent, Uzbek SSR, on March 1, 1943 to a Tatar family, and educated at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MS) and Moscow State University (Ph. D). He became a professor at MIPT in 1974. Sunyaev is the head of the High Energy Astrophysics Department of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and has been chief scientist of the Academy's Space Research Institute since 1992.
Abram Fedorovich (or Fyodorovich) Ioffe was a prominent Russian/Soviet physicist of Jewish origin born in Romny. He was awarded Stalin Prize in 1942, Lenin Prize in 1960 (posthumously), Hero of Socialist Labor in 1955.
Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich (8 March 1914 – 2 December 1987) was a prolific Soviet physicist. He played an important role in the development of Soviet nuclear and thermonuclear weapons, and made important contributions to the fields of adsorption and catalysis, shock waves, nuclear physics, particle physics, astrophysics, physical cosmology, and general relativity.
Nikolay Nikolayevich Semyonov (April 15, 1896 – September 25, 1986) was a Russian/Soviet physicist and chemist. Semyonov was awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on the mechanism of chemical transformation.
Evgeny Mikhailovich Lifshitz was a leading Soviet physicist of Jewish origin and the brother of Ilya Mikhailovich Lifshitz. (Some commonly encountered alternative transliterations of his names include Yevgeny or Evgenii and Lifshits or Lifschitz. ) Lifshitz is well known in general relativity for coauthoring the BKL conjecture concerning the nature of a generic curvature singularity.
Sergey Ivanovich Vavilov (Russian: Серге́й Ива́нович Вави́лов was a Soviet physicist, the President of the USSR Academy of Sciences from July 1945 until his death. His elder brother Nikolai Vavilov was a famous Russian geneticist.
Andrei Dmitriyevich Linde is a Russian-American theoretical physicist and professor of Physics at Stanford University. Dr. Linde is best known for his work on the concept of the inflationary universe. He received his Bachelor of Science degree from Moscow State University. In 1975, Linde was awarded a Ph.D. from the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow.