Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov was an eminent Soviet nuclear physicist, dissident and human rights activist. Sakharov was an advocate of civil liberties and reforms in the Soviet Union. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1975.
Lazar Ludwik Zamenhof (in English; born Eliezer Levi Samenhof, December 15, 1859 – April 14, 1917) was an ophthalmologist, philologist, and the inventor of Esperanto, a constructed language designed for international communication.
Léon Theremin was a Russian inventor. He is most famous for his invention of the theremin, the first electronic musical instrument. He is also the inventor of interlace, a technique of improving the picture quality of a video signal, widely used in video and television technology. His invention of "The Thing", an espionage tool, is considered a predecessor of RFID technology.
Major General Mikhail Timofeyevich Kalashnikov (born November 10, 1919 in Russia's southern Altai region) is a Russian small arms designer, most famous for designing the AK-47 assault rifle, the AKM and the AK-74.
Zhores Ivanovich Alferov (born March 15, 1930) is a Russian physicist and academic who contributed significantly to the creation of modern heterostructure physics and electronics. He is an inventor of the heterotransistor and the winner of 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics. He is also a Russian politician and has been a member of the Russian State Parliament, the Duma, since 1995. Lately, he has become one of the most influential members of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation.
Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (8 February 1834 – 2 February 1907), was a Russian chemist and inventor. He is credited as being the creator of the first version of the periodic table of elements. Using the table, he predicted the properties of elements yet to be discovered.
Sergey Brin (born August 21, 1973) is a Soviet-born American computer scientist best known as the co-founder of Google, Inc. , the world’s largest Internet company, based on its search engine and online advertising technology. Brin immigrated to the United States at the age of six. Earning his undergraduate degree at the University of Maryland, he followed in his father's and grandfather's footsteps by studying mathematics, double-majoring in computer science.
Mikhail (Mikhaylo) Vasilyevich Lomonosov was a Russian polymath, scientist and writer, who made important contributions to literature, education, and science. Among his discoveries was the atmosphere of Venus. His spheres of science were natural science, chemistry, physics, mineralogy, history, art, philology, optical devices and others. Lomonosov was also a poet, who created the basis of the modern Russian literary language.
Artem Ivanovich Mikoyan (5 August 1905 — December 9, 1970) was a Soviet aircraft designer of Armenian descent. In partnership with Mikhail Iosifovich Gurevich he designed many of the famous MiG military aircraft.
Vladimir Andreevich Steklov was a Soviet/Russian mathematician, mechanician and physicist. Steklov was born in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. In 1887, he graduated from the Kharkov University, where he was a student of Aleksandr Lyapunov. In 1889-1906 he worked at the Department of Mechanics of this University. He became a full professor in 1896. During 1893 - 1905 he also taught theoretical mechanics in the Kharkov Technological Institute (now known as Kharkiv Polytechnical Institute).
George Gamow (March 4, 1904 – August 19, 1968), born Georgiy Antonovich Gamov (Георгий Антонович Гамов), was a Russian-born theoretical physicist and cosmologist. He discovered alpha decay via quantum tunneling and worked on radioactive decay of the atomic nucleus, star formation, stellar nucleosynthesis, big bang nucleosynthesis, cosmic microwave background, nucleocosmogenesis and genetics.
Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov (often transliterated Sergei Korolev),, (January 12 1907, Zhytomyr – January 14, 1966, Moscow), was the head Soviet rocket engineer and designer during the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s. He is considered by many as the father of practical astronautics. Although Korolyov was trained as an aircraft designer, his greatest strengths proved to be in design integration, organization and strategic planning.
Academician Andrey Petrovych Ershov was a Soviet computer scientist, notable as a pioneer in systems programming and programming language research. He was responsible for the languages ALPHA and Rapira, AIST-0 the first Soviet time-sharing system, electronic publishing system RUBIN, and MRAMOR, a multiprocessing workstation.
Pafnuty Lvovich Chebyshev (May 16 1821 – December 8 1894) was a Russian mathematician. His name can be alternatively transliterated as Chebychev, Chebyshov, Tchebycheff or Tschebyscheff (French and German transcriptions).
Alexander Mikhaylovich Prokhorov (11 July 1916 – 8 January 2002) was a Soviet/Russian physicist. He was born in Atherton, Queensland, to a family of Russian immigrants. He and his parents relocated to the Soviet Union in 1923. In June 1941, he started to serve in the Soviet Army. He took part in the Second World War. He was wounded twice. After his second injury in 1944, he was demobilized. Prokhorov was a physicist and professor at the Moscow State University.
Andrei Nikolayevich Tupolev was a pioneering Soviet aircraft designer. During his career, he designed and oversaw the design of more than 100 types of aircraft, some of which set 78 world records. In recognition of his work, he was made an honorary member of Britain's Royal Aeronautical Society and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.
David Sarnoff was an American businessman and pioneer of American commercial radio and television. He founded the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) and throughout most of his career he led the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) in various capacities from shortly after its founding in 1919 until his retirement in 1970. He ruled over an ever-growing telecommunications and consumer electronics empire to include both RCA and NBC, which became one of the largest companies in the world.
Igor Sikorsky (25 May 1889 – 26 October 1972), born Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky, was a Russian-American pioneer of aviation in both helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. He designed and flew the world's first multi-engine fixed-wing aircraft, the Russky Vityaz in 1913. After immigrating to the United States, Sikorsky founded the Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation in 1923, and developed the first of Pan American Airways' ocean-conquering flying boats in the 1930s.
Sergey Vladimirovich Ilyushin was a Russian aircraft designer who founded the Ilyushin aircraft design bureau. Born in Dilialevo, Russia, he became interested in aviation in 1910 and was qualified as a pilot in World War I. After obtaining a degree in engineering from the Air Force Academy in 1926, he started designing aircraft. His Ilyushin Il-2 strike aircraft and Ilyushin Il-4 bomber were used extensively in World War II.
Nikolai Ivanovich Kibalchich (1853-1881) was a Russian revolutionary, taking part in the assassination of Tsar Alexander II as the main explosive expert for Narodnaya Volya (the People's Will), and also a rocket pioneer. He was the paternal uncle of revolutionary Victor Serge.
Semyon Alekseyevich Lavochkin, a Soviet aircraft designer, Corresponding Member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences (1958), Major General of the Aviation Engineering (1944), Hero of Socialist Labor (1943 and 1956), member of the CPSU from 1953. Lavochkin was born Ayzikovich (Айзикович) Smolensk, Russia, in 1900 to Jewish parents. After having enlisted in the Red Army, Lavochkin was sent to the Moscow State Technical University in 1920, from which he would graduate in 1927.
Igor Vasilyevich Kurchatov was a Soviet/Russian nuclear physicist. He was the leader of the Soviet atomic bomb project. He was one of the central figures in the Soviet nuclear program. He is best known for his role as a director of the nascent Soviet nuclear program. He led a team of Soviet scientists in developing and building a nuclear weapon program. Under his direction the Soviet Union successfully tested its first plutonium-based nuclear device, First Lightning in 1949.
Vladimir Kozmich Zworykin (July 30, 1889 – July 29, 1982) was a Russian-American inventor, engineer, and pioneer of television technology. Zworykin invented a television transmitting and receiving system employing cathode ray tubes. He played a role in the practical development of television from the early thirties, including charge storage-type tubes, infrared image tubes and the electron microscope.