Alexander Jagiellon, Grand Duke of Lithuania and later also King of Poland; he was the fourth son of Casimir IV Jagiellon. He was elected Grand Duke of Lithuania on the death of his father (1492), and King of Poland on the death of his brother Jan I Olbracht (1501).
Afonso I, or also Affonso (Archaic Portuguese) or Alphonso or Alphonsus, sometimes rendered in English as Alphonzo or Alphonse, depending on the Spanish or French influence, more commonly known as Afonso Henriques, nicknamed the Conqueror, the Founder or the Great by the Portuguese, and El-Bortukali («the Portuguese») and Ibn-Arrik (son of Henry) by the Moors whom he fought, was the first King of Portugal.
Afonso III, or Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso or Alphonsus, the Bolognian, the fifth King of Portugal and the first to use the title King of Portugal and the Algarve, since 1249. He was the second son of King Afonso II of Portugal and his wife, Urraca, princess of Castile; he succeeded his brother, King Sancho II of Portugal, who was removed from the throne, on 4 January 1248.
Afonso IV (8 February 1291 – 28 May 1357), called the Brave, was the seventh king of Portugal and the Algarve from 1325 until his death. He was the only legitimate son of King Denis of Portugal by his wife Elizabeth of Aragon. Afonso, born in Lisbon, was the rightful heir to the Portuguese throne. However, he was not, according to several sources, Dinis' favourite son; his half-brother, the illegitimate Afonso Sanches, enjoyed full royal favour.
Afonso V (originally Affonso) (15 January 1432 – 28 August 1481), called the African, was the twelfth King of Portugal and the Algarves. His sobriquet refers to his conquests in Northern Africa. He was born in Sintra, the eldest son of King Edward of Portugal by his wife, Infanta Eleanor of Aragon. Afonso V was only six years old when he succeeded his father in 1438. During his minority, Afonso V was placed under the regency of his mother, according to a late will of his father.
Afonso XII de Espanha, Rei de Espanha, foi filho de Isabel II de Espanha e de Francisco de Assis de Bourbon, o primogénito do duque de Cádiz. Os seus pais foram forçados, pela revolução de 1868, a fugir para Paris, e Afonso foi enviado para o Theresianum de Viena para continuar os estudos. Subiu ao trono após a restauração da monarquia, em 29 de Dezembro de 1874.
Afonso XIII, foi rei de Espanha entre 1886 e 1931. Alfonso foi o filho póstumo do rei Afonso XII de Espanha e de Maria Cristina de Habsburgo-Lorena. Foi proclamado rei na altura do seu nascimento e a sua mãe foi a regente durante a sua menoridade. Em 1902, ao completar 16 anos, foi declarado maior de idade e assumiu as funções de chefe de estado.
Alfonso I (1073/1074 – 8 September 1134), called the Battler or the Warrior, was the king of Aragon and Navarre from 1104 until his death in 1134. He was the second son of King Sancho Ramírez and successor of his brother Peter I. With his marriage to Urraca, queen regnant of Castile and León, in 1109, he began to use, with some justification, the grandiose title Emperor of Spain, formerly employed by his father-in-law, Alfonso VI.
Alfonso III (1265, Valencia – 18 June 1291), called the Liberal (el Liberal) or the Free (also "the Frank," from el Franc), was the King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona (as Alfons II) from 1285. He conquered the Kingdom of Majorca between his succession and 1287. He was a son of Peter III of Aragon and his Queen consort Constantia of Sicily, daughter and heiress of Manfred of Sicily. His maternal grandmother Beatrice of Savoy was a daughter of Amadeus IV of Savoy and Anne of Burgundy.
Alfonso IV, called the Kind (1299, Naples – 24 January 1336) was the King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona (as Alfonso III) from 1327 to his death. He was the second son of James II and Blanche of Anjou. His reign saw the incorporation of the County of Urgell, Duchy of Athens, and Duchy of Neopatria into the Crown of Aragon. During the reign of his father, he was the procurator general of the Crown.
Alfonso the Magnanimous was the King of Aragon (as Alfonso V), Valencia (as Alfonso III), Majorca, Sardinia and Corsica (as Alfonso II), and Sicily and Count of Barcelona (as Alfonso IV) from 1416 and King of Naples (as Alfonso I) from 1442 until his death. He was one of the most prominent figures of the early Renaissance and a knight of the Order of the Dragon.
Andrew II the Jerosolimitan (c. 1177 – 21 September 1235), King of Hungary(1205-1235). He was the younger son of King Béla III of Hungary, who invested him with the government of the Principality of Halych. However, the boyars of Halych rebelled against his rule and expelled the Hungarian troops. Following their father's death, Andrew continuously conspired against his brother, King Emeric of Hungary who had to grant him the government of Croatia and Dalmatia.
Amalric I of Jerusalem (also Amaury or Aimery) (1136 – 11 July 1174) was King of Jerusalem 1162–1174, and Count of Jaffa and Ascalon before his accession. Amalric was the second son of Melisende of Jerusalem and Fulk of Jerusalem. He was the father of three rulers of Jerusalem, the eldest Sibylla of Jerusalem, the second Baldwin IV and then Isabella of Jerusalem, who ruled after the Siege. He was also the father of two other children.
Amalric II of Jerusalem or Amalric I of Cyprus, born Amalric of Lusignan (1145 – 1 April 1205), King of Jerusalem 1197–1205, was an older brother of Guy of Lusignan. The Lusignan family was noted for its many Crusaders. Amalric and Guy were sons of Hugh VIII of Lusignan, who had himself campaigned in the Holy Land in the 1160s.
Anthony (b. Dresden, 27 December 1755 – d. Dresden, 6 June 1836), also known by his German name Anton, was a King of Saxony (1827-1836) from the House of Wettin. He became known as Anton der Gütige, . He was the fifth but third surviving son of Frederick Christian, Elector of Saxony, and Maria Antonia Walpurgis of Bavaria.
Charlemagne was King of the Franks from 768 to his death. He expanded the Frankish kingdom into a Frankish Empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe. During his reign, he conquered Italy and was crowned Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800 which temporarily made him a rival of the Byzantine Emperor in Constantinople. His rule is also associated with the Carolingian Renaissance, a revival of art, religion, and culture through the medium of the Catholic Church.
Casimir II the Just, was a Duke of Wiślica during 1166-1173, Duke of Sandomierz since 1173 and Duke of Kraków and High Duke of Poland from 1177 until his death. The surname "the Just" wasn't contemporary; this only appears in the 16th century. He was the youngest son of Bolesław III Wrymouth, Duke of Poland, by his second wife Salomea, daughter of Henry, Count of Berg.
Albert (Dresden, 23 April 1828 – Schloss Sibyllenort, 19 June 1902) was a King of Saxony and a member of the House of Wettin. He was the eldest son of Prince John, (who succeeded his brother Frederick Augustus II on the Saxon throne as King John in 1854) by his wife Amalie Auguste of Bavaria. Albert had a successful military career leading Saxon troops which participated in the First War of Schleswig, the Austro-Prussian War, and the Franco-Prussian War.
Frederick or Friedrich of Habsburg (September 21, 1415 – August 19, 1493) was Duke of Austria as Frederick V since 1424, successor of Albert II as German King as Frederick IV since 1440, and Holy Roman Emperor as Frederick III since 1452. He was succeeded by his son Maximilian I in 1493 after ten years of joint rule.
Francis II (12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Empire after the disastrous defeat of the Third Coalition by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz. In 1804, he had founded the Austrian Empire and became Francis I of Austria (Franz I. ), the first Emperor of Austria (Kaiser von Österreich), ruling from 1804 to 1835, so later he was named the one and only Doppelkaiser (double emperor) in history.
Frederick Augustus II was King of Saxony and a member of the House of Wettin. He was the eldest son of Maximilian, Prince of Saxony --younger son of the Elector Frederick Christian of Saxony—by his first wife, Caroline of Bourbon, Princess of Parma.
Henry I the Fowler (876 – 2 July 936) was the Duke of Saxony from 912 and King of the Germans from 919 until his death. First of the Ottonian Dynasty of German kings and emperors, he is generally considered to be the founder and first king of the medieval German state, known until then as East Francia. An avid hunter, he obtained the epithet "the Fowler" because he was allegedly fixing his birding nets when messengers arrived to inform him that he was to be king.
Henry VII was King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizing the crown on 22 August 1485 until his death on 21 April 1509, as the first monarch of the House of Tudor. Henry won the throne when his army defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field. He was the last king of England to win his throne on the field of battle. Henry was successful in restoring the power and stability of the English monarchy after the political upheavals of the Wars of the Roses.