Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, KG, GCB, DSO, PC (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976), often referred to as "Monty", was an Anglo-Irish British Army officer. He successfully commanded Allied forces at the Battle of El Alamein, a major turning point in the Western Desert Campaign during World War II, and troops under his command played a major role in the expulsion of Axis forces from North Africa.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was a five-star general in the United States Army and the 34th President of the United States, from 1953 until 1961. During the Second World War, he served as Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in Europe, with responsibility for planning and supervising the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944–45. In 1951, he became the first supreme commander of NATO.
Josip Broz Tito; 7 or 25 May 1892 – 4 May 1980 was a Yugoslav revolutionary and statesman. He was Secretary-General (later President) of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (1939–80), and went on to lead the World War II Yugoslav resistance movement, the Yugoslav Partisans (1941–45). After the war, he was the authoritarian Prime Minister (1943–63) and later President (1953–80) of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY).
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River roughly 360 kilometers (224 mi) from the Baltic Sea and 300 kilometers (186 mi) from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population as of June 2009 was estimated at 1,711,466, and the Warsaw metropolitan area at approximately 2,785,000. The city area is 516.9 square kilometers (199.6 sq mi), with an agglomeration of 6,100.43 square kilometers (2,355.4 sq mi) (Warsaw Metro Area – Obszar Metropolitalny Warszawy).
Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov was a Russian career officer in the Red Army who, in the course of World War II, played an important role in leading the Red Army through much of Eastern Europe to liberate the Soviet Union and other nations from the Axis Powers' occupation and conquer Germany's capital, Berlin. He is the most decorated general in the history of both Russia and the Soviet Union.
Lviv is a major city in western Ukraine. The city is regarded as one of the main cultural centres of today's Ukraine and historically also for Ukraine’s neighbour, Poland. The historic centre of Lviv with its old buildings and cobblestone roads has survived the Second World War and the Soviet presence largely unscathed. The city has many industries and institutions of higher education such as the Lviv University and the Lviv Polytechnic.
Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski (was the last commander-in-chief of the communist Polish People's Army and the chairman of the Polish United Workers Party from 1981 to 1989, Prime Minister from 1981 to 1985 and the country's head of state from 1985 to 1990. He was the country's last communist leader and dictator and resigned from power after the Polish Round Table Agreement in 1989 led to democratic elections in Poland.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the Free French Forces during World War II. He later founded the French Fifth Republic in 1958 and served as its first President from 1959 to 1969. A veteran of World War I, in the 1920s and 1930s de Gaulle came to the fore as a proponent of armoured warfare and advocate of military aviation, which he considered a means to break the stalemate of trench warfare.
Józef Klemens Piłsudski (December 5, 1867 – May 12, 1935) was Chief of State (1918–22), "First Marshal" (from 1920) and (1926–35) the authoritarian leader of the Second Polish Republic. From mid-World War I he was a major influence in Poland's politics, and an important figure on the European political scene. He is considered largely responsible for Poland regaining independence in 1918, after a hundred twenty-three years of partitions.
Victor Emmanuel III (born 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was a member of the House of Savoy and King of Italy (29 July 1900 – 9 May 1946). In addition, he claimed the crowns of Ethiopia and Albania and claimed the titles Emperor of Ethiopia (1936–43) and King of Albania (1939–43) which were recognised by the great powers in 1937 and 1939, respectively. During his long reign, Victor Emmanuel III saw two world wars and the birth, rise, and fall of Fascism in the Kingdom of Italy.
Maxime Weygand was a French military commander in World War I and World War II. Weygand is remembered for initially fighting the German invasion of France in 1940, then surrendering to and collaborating with the Germans as part of the Vichy France regime.
Verdun is a city in the Meuse department in Lorraine in north-eastern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department. Verdun is the biggest city in Meuse, although the capital of the department is the slightly smaller city of Bar-le-Duc.
Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura Kościuszko (February 4, 1746 – October 15, 1817) was a Polish-Lithuanian general and military leader during the Kościuszko Uprising. He is a national hero in Poland, Lithuania, the United States and Belarus. He led the 1794 Kościuszko Uprising against Imperial Russia and Kingdom of Prussia as Supreme Commander of the National Armed Force (Najwyższy Naczelnik Siły Zbrojnej Narodowej).
Lieutenant General Sir Leslie James Morshead KCB, KBE, CMG, DSO, ED (18 September 1889 – 26 September 1959) was an Australian soldier with a distinguished career in both world wars. He is considered to rival John Monash for the appellation of "Australia's greatest general". He commanded the Australian troops at the Siege of Tobruk and Second Battle of El Alamein where Australian troops inflicted crushing defeats on the German Afrika Korps.
Karel Willem Frederik Marie Doorman (April 23, 1889 - February 28, 1942) was a Dutch Schout-bij-nacht. The English name for his grade is Rear admiral, and so to the Allies under his command, and later in the English speaking world, he became known as "Admiral Doorman". Doorman was killed during the Battle of the Java Sea. In commemoration, the Royal Netherlands Navy named three ships after him: HNLMS Karel Doorman (1946), HNLMS Karel Doorman (1948) and HNLMS Karel Doorman (1991).
Louis-Nicolas d'Avout (10 May 1770 – 1 June 1823), better known as Davout, 1st Duc d'Auerstaedt, 1st Prince d'Eckmühl, was a Marshal of France during the Napoleonic Era. His prodigious talent for war along with his reputation as a stern disciplinarian, earned him the title "The Iron Marshal". He is ranked along with Massena and Lannes as one of Napoleon's finest commanders.
Ferdinand Foch (pronounced "Fosh") OM GCB (2 October 1851 – 20 March 1929) was a French soldier, military theorist, and writer credited with possessing "the most original and subtle mind in the French army" in the early 20th century. He served as general in the French army during World War I and was made Marshal of France in its final year: 1918.
General Stanisław Maczek (31 March 1892 – 11 December 1994) was the most accomplished Polish tank commander of World War II. His division was instrumental in the Allied liberation of France, where it closed the Falaise pocket, resulting in the destruction of 14 German Wehrmacht and SS divisions.
Władysław Eugeniusz Sikorski was a Polish military and political leader. He was born in Tuszów Narodowy a village in the present-day Subcarpathian Voivodeship of south-eastern Poland, which at the time was part of Austria-Hungary, one of Poland's three partitioners. Prior to World War I, he established and participated in several underground organizations that promoted the cause of Polish independence.
General Count Tadeusz Komorowski (June 1, 1895 - August 24, 1966), better known by the name Bór-Komorowski was a Polish military leader. Komorowski was born in Lviv, Austria-Hungary. In the First World War he served as an officer in the Austro-Hungarian Army, and after the war became an officer in the Polish Army, rising to command the Grudziądz Cavalry School.
Jan Karski (24 June 1914 – 13 July 2000), was a Polish World War II resistance movement fighter and scholar at Georgetown University. In 1942 and 1943 Karski reported to the Polish government in exile and the Western Allies on the situation in German-occupied Poland, especially the destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto and the extermination camps.