The politics of Indonesia takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Indonesia is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two People's Representative Councils. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
The Free Aceh Movement, also known as the Aceh Sumatra National Liberation Front (ASNLF), was a separatist group seeking independence for the Aceh region of Sumatra from Indonesia. GAM fought against Indonesian government forces in the Aceh Insurgency from 1976 to 2005, costing over 15,000 lives. The organisation surrendered its separatist intentions and dissolved its armed wing following 2005 peace agreement with the Indonesian Government.
The Free Papua Movement is a separatist organization (classified as a terrorist organisation under Indonesian law) established in 1965 to seek independence for Western New Guinea from Indonesia. The territory is currently administered by Indonesia as the provinces of Papua and West Papua.
The South Moluccas consist of about 150 islands in the Banda Sea, and is the southern part of the Maluku Islands. The main islands are Ceram, Ambon, and Buru. The people of the South Moluccas are mainly Melanesian Christians, numbering about one million. The islands are a part of the Republic of Indonesia and are administered as a province. It is also the birthplace of the counter revolutionary movement called Republik Maluku Selatan (RMS).
The Republic of West Papua is a separatist-proposed state that would give sovereignty to the people of Western New Guinea. The Republic of West Papua was declared firstly after the withdrawal of the Dutch in 1963, but annexation by Indonesia halted the formulation of a government. On 1 July 1971, by Indonesian powers of free referendum, the separatist Free Papua Movement unsuccessfully tried to proclaim Republic of West Papua again.
Gerwani (from Gerakan Wanita Indonesia, Indonesian Women's Movement) was an organization of communist women active in Indonesia in the 1950s and 1960s. The organization was founded in 1950, and had over 650,000 members in 1957. The organization was closely affiliated with Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI), but was an independent organization concerned with a variety of socialist and feminist issues, including marriage law reform, labor rights, and Indonesian nationalism.
The term Great Timor refers to the concept of a united and independent island of Timor, covering formerly Portuguese East Timor, and formerly Dutch West Timor. East Timor was invaded and occupied by Indonesia in 1975, which annexed the territory as its "27th Province" in 1976, but in a referendum held in 1999, the people of East Timor voted to end Indonesian occupation and become an independent state. This caused widespread anger among many Indonesian nationalists, particularly in the military.
Indonesia continues to be a concern among advocates for human rights. Importantly, both Human Rights Watch, as well as Amnesty International, criticized the Indonesian government in their annual reports.
The Constitution of Indonesia is the basis for the government of the Indonesia. The constitution was written in June, July and August 1945, when Indonesia was emerging from Japanese control at the end of World War II. It was abrogated by the Federal Constitution of 1949 and the Provisional Constitution of 1950, but restored on 5 July 1959.
The Federal Constitution of the United States of Indonesia replaced the 1945 Constitution of Indonesia when sovereignty was officially transferred from the Netherlands to Indonesia following the Dutch-Indonesian Round Table Conference. It came into force on December 27, 1949 and was replaced by the Provisional Constitution of 1950 on August 15, 1950.
The 1950 Provisional Constitution (UUDS 1950) replaced the Federal Constitution of 1949 when Indonesia unilaterally withdrew from the union with the Netherlands agreed at the Round Table Conference and returned to being a unitary state. It came into force on August 17, 1950. It was abrogated on July 5, 1959 when President Sukarno issued a decree dissolving the Constitutional Assembly and restoring the 1945 Constitution of Indonesia.
The Supersemar, the Indonesian abbreviation for Surat Perintah Sebelas Maret (Order of March the Eleventh) was a document ostensibly signed by the Indonesian President Sukarno on March 11, 1966, giving the Army commander Lt. Gen. Suharto authority to take whatever measures he "deemed necessary" to restore order to the chaotic situation during the Indonesian killings of 1965–66. In effect, the Supersemar came to be a transfer of executive power from Sukarno to Suharto.
The Constitutional Assembly was a body elected in 1955 to draw up a permanent constitution for the Republic of Indonesia. It sat between November 10, 1956 and July 2, 1959. It was dissolved by then President Sukarno in a decree issued on July 5, 1959 which reimposed the 1945 Constitution.
Johan Cornelis Princen (November 21, 1925, The Hague – February 22, 2002, Jakarta), better known as Poncke Princen, was a Dutch anti-Nazi fighter and colonial soldier. In 1948, he deserted, joined the pro-independence guerrillas in the then Dutch Indies, lived out the rest of his life in Indonesia, became a prominent human rights activist and political dissident under various dictatorial regimes in his adopted country and consequently spent considerable time in detention.
Gotong-royong is a conception of sociality familiar to large parts of Indonesia and Malaysia. The phrase has been translated into English in many ways, most of which harken to the conception of reciprocity or mutual aid. For M. Nasroen, gotong royong forms one of the core tenets of Indonesian philosophy. Paul Michael Taylor and Lorraine V. Aragon state that "gotong royong [is] cooperation among many people to attain a shared goal."
The Petition of Fifty was a document protesting then President Suharto's use of state philosophy Pancasila against political opponents. Issued on 5 May 1980 as an "Expression of Concern", it was signed by fifty prominent Indonesians including former Army Chief of Staff Nasution, former Jakarta governor Ali Sadikin and former prime ministers Burhanuddin Harahap and Mohammad Natsir.
Dwifungsi ("dual function") was a doctrine implemented by Suharto's military-dominated "New Order" government in Indonesian following the removal of President Sukarno. Dwifungsi was used to justify the military permanently increasing its influence in the Indonesian government, including reserved military-only seats in the parliament, and top positions in the nation's public service.
Since the late 1950s, the CIA has been involved in attempts to reduce Communist activity in Indonesia. A coup in 1958 failed to affect the rule of President Sukarno, but after a purge of Communists in 1965, Indonesian military officers General Abdul Haris Nasution and Maj. Gen. Suharto led their forces to liquidate the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) and eventually oust President Sukarno. Suharto's pivotal role led to his assumption of the Indonesian presidency in 1967.
The Tapol Bulletin is a British-based bulletin that monitored the "New Order" government of Suharto's measures against alleged members of the Communist Party of Indonesia after the 1965-1966 crisis in Indonesia. It continues to monitor and report human right issues for Indonesia in subsequent presidential eras of Indonesia's history. Tapol is an abbreviation of the Indonesian words for "political prisoners" (tahanan politik).