Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. His writings cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology. Together with Plato and Socrates (Plato's teacher), Aristotle is one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy.
Edmund Burke PC (12 January 1729 – 9 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher who, after relocating to England, served for many years in the House of Commons of Great Britain as a member of the Whig party. He is mainly remembered for his opposition to the French Revolution.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher, one of the creators of German Idealism. His historicist and idealist account of the total reality as a whole revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to continental philosophy and Marxism.
Jürgen Habermas is a German sociologist and philosopher in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism. He is perhaps best known for his work on the concept of the public sphere, the topic of his first book entitled The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere.
Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a German philosopher, political economist, historian, political theorist, sociologist, communist, and revolutionary, whose ideas are credited as the foundation of modern communism. Marx summarized his approach in the first line of chapter one of The Communist Manifesto, published in 1848: "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles.
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian philosopher/writer, and is considered one of the main founders of modern political science. He was a diplomat, political philosopher, musician, and a playwright, but foremost, he was a civil servant of the Florentine Republic. In June of 1498, after the ouster and execution of Girolamo Savonarola, the Great Council elected Machiavelli as Secretary to the second of the Republic of Florence.
Plato, was a Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Along with his mentor, Socrates, and his student, Aristotle, Plato helped to lay the foundations of natural philosophy, science, and Western philosophy. Plato was originally a student of Socrates, and was as much influenced by his thinking as by what he saw as his teacher's unjust death.
Dr. Alfred Rosenberg Ph. D (12 January 1893 – 16 October 1946) was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi Party. Rosenberg was first introduced to Adolf Hitler by Dietrich Eckart; he later held several important posts in the Nazi government. He is considered one of the main authors of key Nazi ideological creeds, including its racial theory, persecution of the Jews, Lebensraum, abrogation of the Treaty of Versailles, and opposition to "degenerate" modern art.
Charles-Louis de Secondat, baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu, was a French social commentator and political thinker who lived during the Era of the Enlightenment. He is famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers, taken for granted in modern discussions of government and implemented in many constitutions throughout the world. He was largely responsible for the popularization of the terms feudalism and Byzantine Empire.
Hugo Grotius (also known as Huig de Groot or Hugo de Groot; 10 April 1583 – 28 August 1645) worked as a jurist in the Dutch Republic. With Francisco de Vitoria and Alberico Gentili he laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law. He was also a philosopher, theologian, Christian apologist, playwright, and poet.
Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975) was an influential German Jewish political theorist. She has often been described as a philosopher, although she refused that label on the grounds that philosophy is concerned with "man in the singular. " She described herself instead as a political theorist because her work centers on the fact that "men, not Man, live on the earth and inhabit the world.
Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin (15 July 1892 – 27 September 1940) was a German-Jewish philosopher, sociologist, literary critic, translator and essayist. He was at times associated with the Frankfurt School of critical theory. His turn to Marxism in the 1930s was influenced by his friend Bertolt Brecht, who had developed his own critical aesthetics, which asked for the emotional distancing of the spectator.
Antonio "Toni" Negri (born August 1, 1933) is an Italian Marxist sociologist and political philosopher. Negri is perhaps best-known for his co-authorship of Empire and his work on Spinoza. Born in Padua, he became a political philosophy professor in his hometown university. Negri founded the Potere Operaio (Worker Power) group in 1969 and was a leading member of Autonomia Operaia.
Giorgio Agamben (born 1942) is an Italian philosopher who teaches at the Università IUAV di Venezia. He also teaches at the Collège International de Philosophie in Paris, at the European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, Switzerland, and previously taught at the University of Macerata and at the University of Verona, both in Italy.
Carl Schmitt (July 11, 1888 – April 7, 1985) was a German jurist, Catholic philosopher, political theorist, and professor of law. Schmitt published several essays, influential in the 20th century and beyond, on the mentalities that surround the effective wielding of political power.
Cornelius Castoriadis was a Greek-philosopher, economist and psychoanalyst. Author of the The Imaginary Institution of Society, co-founder of the Socialisme ou Barbarie group and 'philosopher of autonomy'.
Mazdak (died c. 524 or 528) was a proto-socialist Persian reformer and religious activist who gained influence under the reign of the Sassanian Shahanshah Kavadh I. He claimed to be a prophet of God, and instituted communal possessions and social welfare programs.
Raya Dunayevskaya (1 May 1910 – 9 June 1987) was the founder of the philosophy of Marxist Humanism in the United States of America. At one time Leon Trotsky's secretary, she later split with him and ultimately founded the organization News and Letters Committees and was its leader until her death.
Ernest Wamba dia Wamba is a senator in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. He was the vice president of the Senate Permanent Commission on Legal and Administrative Matters in the transitional government. Previously, he was commander of the Kisangani faction of the rebel Rally for Congolese Democracy during the Second Congo War. He is also a prominent academic and political theorist.
Arthur Moeller van den Bruck (April 23, 1876 – May 30, 1925) was a German cultural historian and writer, best known for his controversial book Das Dritte Reich (1923). He also published the first full German translation of Dostoyevsky.
Joseph Raz is a highly influential legal, moral and political philosopher. He is one of the most prominent living advocates of legal positivism. He has spent most of his career as professor of philosophy of law and a fellow of Balliol College, Oxford, and simultaneously as professor of law at Columbia University Law School. Several of Raz's students have become important legal and moral philosophers. His work has also had great influence on the developing jurisprudence of the Court of Tan.
Þorsteinn Gylfason (12 August 1942 - 16 August 2005) was an Icelandic philosopher, translator, musician, poet, art enthusiast and intellectual. Þorsteinn was born and raised in Reykjavík, the capital of Iceland. His parents were Guðrún Vilmundardóttir and Gylfi Þ. Gíslason, a university professor and government minister. He was the brother of Vilmundur Gylfason, a prominent politician, and Þorvaldur Gylfason, a professor of economics.
Swami Sahajanand Saraswati (1889-1950), was born in a Jijhoutia Brahmin family of Ghazipur of Uttar Pradesh state of India, was an ascetic of Dashnami Order of Adi Shankara Sampradaya (a monastic post which only Brahmins can hold) as well as a nationalist and peasant leader of India. Although he was born in Uttar Pradesh (U.P.
Serge Moscovici (born 1925 as Srul Herş Moscovici — Srul Hersh Moskovitch) is a Romanian-born French social psychologist, currently the director of the Laboratoire Européen de Psychologie Sociale ("European Laboratory of Social Psychology"), which he co-founded in 1975 at the Maison des sciences de l'homme in Paris.