Agriotherium is an extinct genus of Ursidae of the Miocene through Pliocene epochs, endemic to North America, Europe, Africa, and Asia living from ~13.6–2.5 Ma, existing for approximately 11.1 million years.
Cerdocyon avius is an extinct species of omnivorous mammal of the family Canidae, which inhabited North America during the Pliocene from 4.9 Ma to approximately 11,000 years ago. It is similar to the modern Crab-eating Fox.
Bison antiquus sometimes called the ancient bison, was the most common large herbivore of the North American continent for over ten thousand years, and is a direct ancestor of the living American bison. During the Pleistocene Ice Age, steppe wisent (Bison priscus), migrated from Siberia into Alaska. This species then developed into the long-horned bison (Bison latifrons) which lived in North America for 3 million years.
Anancus is an extinct genus of gomphothere that lived in the late Miocene and early Pleistocene, from 3 to 1.5 million years ago. Their fossils have been found in Africa, Europe, and Asia. Anancus stood around 3 metres (9.8 ft) tall, and closely resembled a modern elephant. It had two tusks, whereas most other gomphotheres had four. Aside from its somewhat shorter legs, Anancus was also different from modern elephants in that its tusks were much longer, up to 4 m (13 ft) in length.
Cuvieronius is an extinct New World genus of gomphothere. It is named after the French naturalist Georges Cuvier, stood 2.7m (9 ft) tall and looked like a modern elephant except for its spiral-shaped tusks.
Stegomastodon ('roof nipple tooth') is an extinct genus of gomphothere, a family of proboscideans. It is not to be confused with the genus Mammut from a different proboscidean family, whose members are commonly called "mastodons", nor with the genus Stegodon, from yet another proboscidean sub-family, whose members are commonly called "stegodonts". It stood 2.8 metres (9 ft) tall and looked like a robust version of the modern elephant. It weighed about 6,000 kilograms (13,000 lb).
Elephas falconeri is an extinct Siculo-Maltese species of elephant closely related to the modern Asian elephant. In 1867 George Busk had proposed the species Elephas falconeri for many of the smallest molars selected from the material originally ascribed by Hugh Falconer to Elephas melitensis. This island-bound elephant was an example of insular dwarfism, reaching only 90 cm (3 ft) in height. E.
Mammuthus meridionalis is an extinct species of mammoth endemic to Europe and central Asia from the Pliocene, living from 2.5–0.126 mya existing for approximately 2.374 million years. With a height of 4.50 m (15 ft), M. meridionalis is one of the largest proboscids to have ever lived, along with other larger species of mammoth, and the earlier Deinotherium. M. meridionalis was one of the first species of mammoths and resembled a huge Asian elephant with larger tusks.
The steppe mammoth, Mammuthus trogontherii, is an extinct species of Elephantidae, that ranged over most of northern Eurasia during the Middle Pleistocene, 600,000-370,000 years ago. The steppe mammoth probably evolved in Siberia during the early Pleistocene from Mammuthus meridionalis, which was replaced during the middle Pleistocene about 750,000 - 500,000 years ago.
Hipparion (Greek, "pony") is an extinct genus of horse endemic to North America, to Asia, Europe, and Africa during the Miocene through Pleistocene ~23 Mya—781,000 years ago, existing for 22.219 million years (genus including species). Hipparion sp. (~12.7 Ma—781,000) existed for approximately 11.919 million years. Its habitat or biome would be that of non-forested, grassy plains, shortgrass prairie or steppes.
Hippopotamus gorgops is an extinct species of hippopotamus. It first appeared in Africa during the late Miocene, and eventually migrated into Europe during the early Pliocene (where its fossils were first discovered). It became extinct prior to the Ice Age. With a length of 4.3 metres (14 ft) and a shoulder height of 2.1 metres (6.9 ft) H. gorgops was much larger than its living relative, H. amphibius. Another feature setting it apart from H. amphibius were its eyes.
Platygonus is an extinct genus of herbivorous peccary of the family Tayassuidae, endemic to North America from the Miocene through Pleistocene epochs (10.3 mya—11,000 years ago), existing for approximately 10.289 million years. Platygonus was a gregarious animal and, like modern peccaries, possibly traveled in packs. It ranged from southern Canada to Mexico and from California to Pennsylvania.
Sivatherium ' is an extinct genus of giraffe that ranged throughout Africa to Southern Asia (mostly India). The African species, S. maurusium, was once placed within the genus "Libytherium. " It may have become extinct as recently as 8,000 years ago, as depictions of it are known from ancient rock paintings in the Sahara desert.
Sthenurus ("Strong Tail") is an extinct genus of kangaroo. With a height of about 3 m (10 ft), some species were twice as large as modern extant species. Sthenurus was related to the better-known Procoptodon.
The European jaguar (Panthera gombaszoegensis) lived about 1.5 million years ago, and is the earliest known Panthera-species from Europe. Fossil remains were first known from the Olivola site in Italy and under the synonym Panthera toscana from other Italian localities. Later specimens have been found in England, Germany, Spain, France, and the Netherlands. Sometimes it is recognized as a subspecies of Panthera onca, the jaguar.
The Trinil Tiger (Panthera tigris trinilensis) is a fossil tiger dating from about 1.2 million years ago. This tiger was found at the locality of Trinil, Java, Indonesia. These fossils are now stored in the Dubois Collection of the National Museum of Natural History in Leiden, the Netherlands. Although these fossils have been found on Java, the Trinil Tiger is probably not a direct ancestor of the Javan Tiger. The Trinil Tiger probably became extinct fifty thousand years ago.
The Tenerife Giant Rat (Canariomys bravoi) was endemic to the island of Tenerife, the largest of the Canary Islands, Spain. Many remains have been found during archeological digs. Most remains are from the Pleistocene. With help of radiocarbon dating some of the finds are dated from about 12,000 years ago (late Pleistocene) . This species was a big rat of about 1 kg. Including the rat tail was over 45 inches making it the largest of its family (or at least in the Canaries).
Panthera leo vereshchagini, known as the East Siberian- or Beringian cave lion is an extinct prehistoric lion that inhabited Yakutia, Alaska, and the Yukon Territory during the Pleistocene epoch. Analysis of skulls and mandibles of this lion demonstrate that it is a new subspecies different from the other prehistoric lions.
Panthera leo fossilis is an extinct feline of the Pleistocene epoch. It is generally considered to be an early subspecies of the lion (Panthera leo). With a maximum head and body length of 2.40 meters, which is about half a meter longer than today's African lions, Panthera leo fossilis was almost as big as the American lion from the Upper Pleistocene. Many bone-fragments of this cat are known from Mosbach in Germany, a small village, which is included in the town Wiesbaden today.
Megalotragus is a genus of very large extinct African alcelaphines from the Pliocene and Pleistocene. It resembled modern hartebeests, but differed in larger body size, it includes the largest bovids in the tribe Alcelaphini, reaching a shoulder height of 1,4 m. Megalotragus disappeared at the end of the Pleistocene. Alan Turner & Mauricio Anton: Evolving Eden. An Illustrated Guide to the Evolution of the African Large-Mammal Fauna. Columbia University Press, New York, 2004.