Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the 32nd President of the United States and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war. The only American president elected to more than two terms, he was often referred to by his initials, FDR. Roosevelt won his first of four presidential elections in 1932, while the United States was in the depths of the Great Depression.
The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is a federally owned corporation in the United States created by congressional charter in May 1933 to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly impacted by the Great Depression. The enterprise was a result of the efforts of Senator George W. Norris of Nebraska.
The New Deal Coalition was the alignment of interest groups and voting blocs that supported the New Deal and voted for Democratic presidential candidates from 1932 until approximately 1968, which made the Democratic Party the majority party during that period, losing only to Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1952 and 1956. Franklin D.
Robert Houghwout Jackson (February 13, 1892–October 9, 1954) was United States Attorney General (1940–1941) and an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court (1941–1954). He was also the chief United States prosecutor at the Nuremberg Trials. A "county-seat lawyer", he remains the last Supreme Court justice appointed who did not graduate from any law school (though Justice Stanley Reed who served from 1938-1957 was the last such justice to serve on the court).
Congress enacted the Securities Act of 1933 (the "1933 Act," the "Truth in Securities Act" or the "Federal Securities Act", 48 Stat. 74, enacted 1933-05-27, codified at 15 U.S.C. § 77a et seq. ), in the aftermath of the stock market crash of 1929 and during the ensuing Great Depression. It is often referred to as the 1933 Act, the '33 Act, or the Securities Act.
The National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA), officially known as the Act of June 16, 1933 (Ch. 90, 48 Stat. 195, formerly codified at 15 U.S.C. sec. 703), was an American statute which authorized the President of the United States to regulate industry and permit cartels and monopolies in an attempt to stimulate economic recovery, and which established a national public works program. The legislation was enacted in June 1933 during the Great Depression part of President Franklin D.
United States v. Butler, 297 U.S. 1 (1936), was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the processing taxes instituted under the 1933 Agricultural Adjustment Act were unconstitutional. Justice Owen Josephus Roberts argued that the tax was "but a means to an unconstitutional end" that violated the Tenth Amendment.
The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is an American Federal agency based in the Pacific Northwest. BPA was created by an act of Congress in 1937 to market electric power from the Bonneville Dam located on the Columbia River and to construct facilities necessary to transmit that power. Congress has since designated Bonneville to be the marketing agent for power from all of the Federally-owned hydroelectric projects in the Pacific Northwest.
The Rural Electrification Act of 1936 provided federal funding for installation of electrical distribution systems to serve rural areas of the United States. It was proposed by Representative John E. Rankin and Senator George William Norris. The act was signed into law by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. At the time the act was passed, electricity was commonplace in cities but largely unavailable in farms, ranches, and other rural places.
The American Liberty League was a United States organization formed in 1934 by conservative Democrats such as Al Smith (the 1928 Democratic presidential nominee), Jouett Shouse (former high party official and US Representative), John W.
Norris Dam is a hydroelectric and flood control structure located on the Clinch River in Anderson County and Campbell County, Tennessee, USA. Its construction in the mid-1930s was the first major project for the Tennessee Valley Authority, which had been created in 1933 to bring economic development to the region and control the rampant flooding that had long plagued the Tennessee Valley.
The Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937, frequently called the court-packing plan, was a legislative initiative to add more justices to the Supreme Court proposed by U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt shortly after his victory in the 1936 presidential election. Although the bill aimed generally to overhaul and modernize all of the federal court system, its central and most controversial provision would have granted the President power to appoint an additional Justice to the U.S.
The Black Cabinet was first known as the Federal Council of Negro Affairs, an informal group of African American public policy advisors to United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt. It was supported by the first lady Eleanor Roosevelt. By mid-1935 there were 45 African Americans working in federal executive departments and New Deal agencies.
The Economy Act of 1933, officially titled the Act of March 20, 1933, is an Act of Congress that cut the salaries of federal workers and reduced benefit payments to veterans, moves intended to reduce the federal deficit in the United States. The Economy Act of 1933 is different from the Economy Act of 1932. The Economy Act of 1932 was signed in the final days of the Hoover administration in February 1933. This sometimes leads to confusion between the two pieces of legislation.
The Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA),, also known as the Wheeler-Rayburn Act, was a law that was passed by the United States Congress to facilitate regulation of electric utilities, by either limiting their operations to a single state, and thus subjecting them to effective state regulation, or forcing divestitures so that each became a single integrated system serving a limited geographic area.
The Public Works of Art Project was a program to employ artists, as part of the New Deal, during the Great Depression. It was the first such program, running from December 1933 to June 1934. It was headed by Edward Bruce, under the United States Treasury Department and paid for by the Civil Works Administration.
“The switch in time that saved nine” is the name given to what was perceived as the sudden jurisprudential shift by Associate Justice Owen J. Roberts of the U.S. Supreme Court in West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish. Conventional historical accounts portrayed the Court's majority opinion as a strategic move to protect the Court's integrity and independence from President Franklin Roosevelt's court-reform bill, which would have expanded the size of the bench up to 15 justices.
William Nuckles Doak (December 12, 1882 in Rural Retreat, Virginia–October 23, 1933 in McLean, Virginia) was an American labor leader who served as United States Secretary of Labor from December 9, 1930, to March 4, 1933, under Herbert Hoover. He died from cardiovascular disease at the age of 50 in McLean, Virginia, and is buried in the Methodist Church Cemetery in his birthplace of Rural Retreat, Virginia.
Retirement, Survivors, Disability Insurance (RSDI) was part of Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal during the Great Depression. The insurance took to the form of social security payments for widows with a family to support, the handicapped and others in need of money who were not able to support themselves. It was enacted in 1935.
Beardsley Ruml (5 November 1894 - 19 April 1960), was an American statistician, economist, philanthropist, planner, businessman and man of affairs in the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s. He was born in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. His father, Wentzle Ruml, was a country doctor. His mother, Salome Beardsley Ruml, was a hospital superintendent. He received a BA from Dartmouth College in 1915 and a Ph.D. in psychology and education from the University of Chicago in 1917.
The Conservative Manifesto was a position statement drafted in 1937 by a bi-partisan group of New Deal critics. Those involved in its creation included opponents of President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal as well as erstwhile supporters who had come to believe its programs were proving ineffective. The statement of principles included, among other things, a call for lower taxes and reduced spending as well as greater respect for state and local governmental authority.
Interest group democracy was an attempt by the American President Franklin D. Roosevelt to create broad support for the New Deal by giving major interest groups at least part of what they wanted. In addition to aiding bankers, farmers, corporations, and the unemployed, Congress enacted legislation to helping homeowners, stock investors, and the railroads.