The term Spaceguard loosely refers to a number of efforts to discover and study near-Earth objects (NEO). Arthur C. Clarke coined the term in his novel Rendezvous with Rama where SPACEGUARD was the name of an early warning system created following a catastrophic asteroid impact. This name was later adopted by a number of real life efforts to discover and study near-Earth objects.
The LIncoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) project is a cooperative project between the United States Air Force, NASA, and MIT's Lincoln Laboratory for the systematic discovery and tracking of near-Earth asteroids. LINEAR was responsible for the majority of asteroid detections since 1998 until overtaken by the Catalina Sky Survey. As of December 31, 2007, LINEAR had detected 226,193 new objects of which at least 2019 were near-Earth asteroids and 236 were comets.
Lowell Observatory Near-Earth-Object Search (LONEOS) was a project designed to discover asteroids and comets that orbit near the Earth. The project, funded by NASA, was directed by Dr. Ted Bowell of Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona. The LONEOS project began in 1993 and ran until the end of February 2008.
Spacewatch is a project at the University of Arizona currently led by Dr. Robert S. McMillan that specializes in the study of minor planets, including various types of asteroids and comets. It was founded in 1980 by Prof. Tom Gehrels and Dr. Robert S. McMillan.
Catalina Sky Survey is a project to discover comets and asteroids, and to search for Near-Earth objects. More specifically, to search for potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs), that may pose a threat of impact.
orbit@home is a BOINC-based distributed computing project which uses the Orbit Reconstruction, Simulation and Analysis framework to monitor the impact hazard posed by Near-Earth objects. The project's primary function is to optimize the search strategy that telescopes used to find NEOs. On March 4, 2008 orbit@home completed the installation of its new server and officially opened to new members. On April 11, 2008 orbit@home launched a Windows version of their client.
Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is a NASA-funded infrared-wavelength astronomical space telescope launched on 14 December 2009. The Earth-orbiting satellite carries a 40-centimetre (16 in) diameter infrared-sensitive telescope, which will survey the entire sky over the course of six months through images made in the 3 to 25 μm wavelength range.