A Private is a soldier of the lowest military rank (equivalent to NATO Rank Grades OR-1 to OR-3 depending on the force served in). The term dates from the Middle Ages, where privates were known as "private soldiers" (a term still used in the United Kingdom) who were either hired, conscripted, or feudalized into service by a nobleman forming an army. The usage of Private dates from the 18th century, when the army of Napoleon Bonaparte first established the permanent rank of Soldat.
Sultan is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. Originally it was an Arabic language abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", or "rulership", derived from the masdar سلطة sulṭah, meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain Muslim rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e.
An officer is a member of an armed force or in some cases uniformed service who holds a position of authority. Commissioned officers derive authority directly from a sovereign power and, as such, hold a commission charging them with the duties and responsibilities of a specific office or position. Commissioned officers are typically the only persons, in a military environment, able to act as the commanding officer (according to the most technical definition of the word) of a military unit.
A general officer is an officer of very high military rank. The term or equivalent is used by nearly every country in the world. General can be used as a generic term for all grades of general officer, or it can specifically refer to a single rank that is simply called general.
Military rank is a system of hierarchical relationships in armed forces or civil institutions organized along military lines. Usually, uniforms denote the bearer's rank by particular insignia affixed to the uniforms.
Lieutenant (abbreviated Lt, LT, Lieut and LEUT) is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service, emergency medical services or police officer rank. Lieutenant may also appear as part of a title used in various other organisations with a codified command structure. It often designates someone who is "second-in-command," and as such, may precede the name of the rank directly above it.
Prefect is a magisterial title of varying definition. A prefect's office, department, or area of control is called a prefecture, but in various post-Roman cases there is a prefect without a prefecture or vice versa. The words "prefect" and "prefecture" are also used, more or less conventionally, to render analogous words in other languages, especially Romance languages.
A non-commissioned officer (sometimes noncommissioned officer), abbreviated to NCO or Non-com (US), is an enlisted military member holding a position of some degree of authority who has (usually) obtained it by promotion from within the non-officer ranks. Many countries use the term sub-officer for these ranks. In the USA, the NCO corps includes the rank of corporal and all the grades of sergeant elsewhere warrant officers are also NCOs.
Emir, ("commander" or "general", also "prince"; also transliterated as amir, aamir or ameer) is a high title of nobility or office, used throughout the Arab World, as well as historically in 19th-century Afghanistan and in the medieval Muslim world. Emirs are usually considered high-ranking sheikhs, but in monarchical states the term is also used for princes, with "Emirate" being analogous to principality in this sense.
Khan is an originally Central Asian title for a sovereign or military ruler, first used by medieval Altaic-speaking nomadic tribes living to the north of China. 'Khan' is first seen as a title in the Xianbei confederation for their chief between 283–289. The probably proto-Mongolian Rourans were the first people who used the titles Khagan and Khan for their emperors, replacing the Chanyu of the Xiongnu, whom Grousset and others assume to be Turkic.
Common military ranks Officers Navies Armies Air forces Admiral ofthe Fleet Marshal /Field Marshal Marshal ofthe Air Force Admiral General Air Marshal Commodore Brigadier Air Commodore Captain Colonel Group Captain Commander Lt. Colonel Wing Commander Lt.
Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages where the title of Lieutenant General was held by the second in command on the battlefield, who was normally subordinate to a Captain General. In modern armies, Lieutenant General normally ranks immediately below General and above Major General; it is equivalent to the navy rank of Vice Admiral, and in Air Forces with a separate rank structure, it is equivalent to Air Marshal.
Major General or Major-General is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of Sergeant Major General. A Major General is a high-ranking officer, normally subordinate to the rank of Lieutenant General and senior to the ranks of Brigadier and Brigadier General. "Major General" is generally considered to be a 2 star rank.
Brigadier is a senior military rank, the meaning of which is considerably variable. It is generally superior to a full Colonel and subordinate to a Major General. A Brigadier typically commands a Brigade consisting of three battalions (approximately 3,000 troops). It is usually a flag rank in most military structures around the world. In some countries, this rank is given the name of Brigadier General.
Major is a rank of commissioned officer, with corresponding ranks existing in almost every military in the world. When used unhyphenated, in conjunction with no other indicator of rank, the term refers to the rank just senior to that of an Army captain and just below the rank of lieutenant colonel. It is considered the most junior of the field ranks. In some militaries, notably France, the rank is referred to as "Commandant", while in others it is known as "Captain-Major".
General of the Army is a military rank used in some countries to denote a senior military leader, usually a General in command of a nation's Army. It may also be the title given to a General who commands an Army in the field. The rank is typically considered the equivalent of Marshal, Field Marshal, Fleet Admiral, Da Jiang, Wonsu, Mushir and other equivalent "5 star ranks".
Bey is a Turkish title for "chieftain", traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. In historical accounts, many Turkish, other Turkic and Persian leaders are titled Bey, Beg, Bek, Bay, Baig or Beigh. They are all the same word with the simple meaning of "lord".
Magister militum (Latin for "Master of the Soldiers") was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. Used alone, the term referred to the senior military officer (equivalent to a war theatre commander, the emperor remaining the supreme commander) of the Empire. In Greek sources, the term is translated either as strategos or as stratelates.
Sergeant (normally abbreviated to "Sgt") is a rank used in some form by most militaries, police forces, and other uniformed organizations around the world. Its origins are the Latin serviens, "one who serves", through the French term Sergent. In most armies, the rank of sergeant corresponds to command of a squad. However, in commonwealth armies, it is a more senior rank, corresponding roughly to a platoon second-in-command.
Commander is a naval rank which is also sometimes used as a military title depending on the individual customs of a given military service. Commander is also used as a rank or title in some organizations outside of the armed forces, particularly in police and law enforcement.
Corporal is a rank in use in some form by most militaries and also by some police forces or other uniformed organizations. It is usually equivalent to NATO Rank Code OR-4. The word is probably derived from a medieval Italian phrase capo corporale, meaning "head of a body (of soldiers)". It may also derive from an appointment as an officer's bodyguard, "corporal" originally being an adjective pertaining to the word body.
Lieutenant colonel is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies and most marine forces and some air forces of the world, typically ranking above a major and below a colonel. The rank of lieutenant colonel is often shortened to simply "colonel" in conversation and in unofficial correspondence. A lieutenant colonel is typically in charge of a battalion in the army.
A commander-in-chief is the commander of a nation's military forces or significant element of those forces. In the latter case, the force element may be defined as those forces within a particular region or those forces which are associated by function. As a practical term it refers to the military competencies that reside in a nation-state's executive, head of state or government.
Marshal (also sometimes spelled marshall in American English, but not in British English) is a word used in several official titles of various branches of society. The word derives from Old High German marah "horse" and schalh "servant", and originally meant "stable keeper". As marshals became trusted members of the courts of Medieval Europe, the title grew in reputation. During the last few centuries, it has been used for the most elevated offices.