Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (26 August 1743 – 8 May 1794)), the father of modern chemistry, was a French noble prominent in the histories of chemistry and biology. He stated the first version of the law of conservation of mass, recognized and named oxygen (1778) and hydrogen (1783), abolished the phlogiston theory, helped construct the metric system, wrote the first extensive list of elements, and helped to reform chemical nomenclature.
Sir Andrew John Wiles KBE FRS (born 11 April 1953) is a British mathematician and a professor at Princeton University, specializing in number theory. He is most famous for proving Fermat's Last Theorem.
Charles Messier (26 June 1730 – 12 April 1817) was a French astronomer most notable for publishing an astronomical catalogue consisting of deep sky objects such as nebulae and star clusters that came to be known as the 103 "Messier objects". The purpose of the catalogue was to help astronomical observers, in particular comet hunters such as himself, distinguish between permanent and transient objects in the sky.
"Ernst Mayr" redirects here; it is not to be confused with Ernst Meyer. Ernst Walter Mayr (July 5, 1904, Kempten, Germany – February 3, 2005, Bedford, Massachusetts, United States), was one of the 20th century's leading evolutionary biologists. He was also a renowned taxonomist, tropical explorer, ornithologist, historian of science, and naturalist.
Enrico Bombieri (born 26 November 1940) is an Italian mathematician, born in Milan. He is now at the Institute for Advanced Study. He is known for work in number theory, algebraic geometry, and mathematical analysis. He was awarded a Fields Medal in 1974 and the Balzan Prize in 1980. In 2010 he received the King Faisal International Prize jointly with Terence Tao. The Bombieri–Vinogradov theorem is one of the major applications of the large sieve method.
Freeman John Dyson FRS (born December 15, 1923) is a British-born American theoretical physicist and mathematician, famous for his work in quantum field theory, solid-state physics, and nuclear engineering. Dyson is a member of the Board of Sponsors of The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Dyson has lived in Princeton, New Jersey for over fifty years.
Francis Harry Compton Crick OM FRS (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004), was a British molecular biologist, physicist, and neuroscientist, and most noted for being one of two co-discoverers of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953, together with James D. Watson. He, James D.
Heisuke Hironaka (広中 平祐 Hironaka Heisuke; born 9 April 1931) is a Japanese mathematician. After completing his undergraduate studies at Kyoto University, he received his Ph.D. from Harvard while under the direction of Oscar Zariski. He won the Fields Medal in 1970. He is celebrated for proving in 1964 that singularities of algebraic varieties admit resolutions in characteristic zero.
Michael Faraday, FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of the time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. Faraday studied the magnetic field around a conductor carrying a DC electric current, and established the basis for the electromagnetic field concept in physics. He discovered electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism, and laws of electrolysis.
Sir Michael Francis Atiyah, OM, FRS, FRSE (born 22 April 1929) is a Britishmathematician, and one of the most influential mathematicians of the twentieth century. He grew up in Sudan and Egypt, and spent most of his academic life at Oxford, Cambridge, and the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton.
Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat, marquis de Condorcet (17 September 1743 – 28 March 1794), known as Nicolas de Condorcet, was a French philosopher, mathematician, and early political scientist who devised the concept of a Condorcet method. Unlike many of his contemporaries, he advocated a liberal economy, free and equal public education, constitutionalism, and equal rights for women and people of all races.
Adrien-Marie Legendre (18 September 1752 – 10 January 1833) was a French mathematician. He made important contributions to statistics, number theory, abstract algebra and mathematical analysis. Adrien-Marie Legendre was born in Paris (or possibly, in Toulouse, depending on sources) on 18 September 1752 to a wealthy family. He was given a top quality education at the Collège Mazarin in Paris, defending his thesis in physics and mathematics in 1770.
Louis-Victor-Pierre-Raymond, 7th duc de Broglie, FRS (15 August 1892 – 19 March 1987) was a French physicist and a Nobel laureate. He was the sixteenth member elected to occupy seat 1 of the Académie française in 1944, and served as Perpetual Secretary of the Académie des sciences, France.
Jean le Rond d'Alembert (16 November 1717 – 29 October 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist and philosopher. He was also co-editor with Denis Diderot of the Encyclopédie. D'Alembert's method for the wave equation is named after him.
Edward Witten (born August 26, 1951) is an American theoretical physicist with a focus on mathematical physics. He is a professor at the Institute for Advanced Study. He is a leading researcher in superstring theory and winner of the highest honor in mathematics, the Fields Medal.
Frederick Sanger, OM, CH, CBE, FRS (born 13 August 1918) is an English biochemist and twice a Nobel laureate in chemistry. He is the fourth (and only living) person to have been awarded two Nobel Prizes.
Joseph-Louis Lagrange (25 January 1736 – 10 April 1813), born Giuseppe Lodovico (Luigi) Lagrangia, was an Italian-born mathematician and astronomer, who lived part of his life in Prussia and part in France, making significant contributions to all fields of analysis, to number theory, and to classical and celestial mechanics.