Chac-Mool is the name given to a type of Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican stone statue. The Chac-Mool depicts a human figure in a position of reclining with the head up and turned to one side, holding a tray over the stomach. The meaning of the position or the statue itself remains unknown. Chac-Mool statues are found in or around temples in Toltec and other post-Classic central Mexican sites, and in post-Classic Maya civilization sites with heavy Toltec influence, such as Chichen Itza.
Maya codices are folding books stemming from the pre-Columbian Maya civilization, written in Maya hieroglyphic script on Mesoamerican paper, made from the inner bark of certain trees, the main being the wild fig tree or Amate (Ficus glabrata). Paper, generally known by the Nahuatl word amatl, was named by the Mayas huun. The folding books are the products of professional scribes working under the patronage of deities such as the Tonsured Maize God and the Howler Monkey Gods.
A chultun is a bottle-shaped underground storage chamber built by the pre-Columbian Maya in southern Mesoamerica. Their entrances were surrounded by plastered aprons which guided rainwater into them during the rainy seasons. Most of these archaeological features likely functioned as cisterns for potable water. Chultunob' were typically constructed in locations where naturally occurring cenotes were absent (such as the Puuc hills, which sit hundreds of feet above the Yucatán Peninsula aquifer).
The traditional Maya religion of western Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, and Mexico (Chiapas and Yucatan) is a southeastern variant of Mesoamerican religion. Like all contemporary Mesoamerican religions, it results from centuries of symbiosis with Roman Catholicism. When its pre-Spanish antecedents are included, however, traditional Maya religion, as a recognizably distinct phenomenon, already exists for more than two millennia.
Trade in Maya civilization was a crucial factor in maintaining cities. The economy was fairly loose, and based mostly on food like squash, potatoes, corn, beans, and sometimes chocolate drinks made of ground cocoa beans and water. They also traded almost any other basic necessities because there was a large need for trade in order to bring such basic goods together.
The Classic Maya Collapse refers to the decline and abandonment of the Classic Period Maya cities of the southern Maya lowlands of Mesoamerica between the 8th and 9th centuries. The Classic Period of Mesoamerican chronology is generally defined as the period from AD 300 to 900, the last 100 years of which, from AD 800 to 900, are frequently referred to as the Terminal Classic. The Classic Maya Collapse is one of the biggest mysteries in archaeology.
Mayan rulers were the centers of power for Mayan civilization. Each Mayan city-state was controlled by a dynasty of kings, who collectively drove the empire forward. Every man, woman, and child was expected to give everything for their rulers.
The Southern Maya Area (SMA) is a part of Mesoamerica, long believed important to the rise of Maya civilization. It lies within a broad arc or cantilevered rectangle from Chiapa de Corzo, in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, in the northwest due south to Izapa and Paso de la Amada, from Chiapa de Corzo southeast to Copán, Honduras, and from Copán south to Chalchuapa, El Salvador. The Pacific Ocean forms the southern and western limits of the SMA.
The K'iche' Kingdom of Q'umarkaj was a state in the highlands of modern day Guatemala which was founded by the K'iche' (Quiché) Maya in the thirteenth century, and which expanded through the fifteenth century until it was conquered by Spanish and Nahua forces led by Pedro de Alvarado in 1524. The K'iche' kingdom reached its height under the king K'iq'ab who ruled from the fortified town of Q'umarkaj near the modern town of Santa Cruz del Quiché.
Acalan was a Chontal Maya region in what is now southern Campeche, Mexico. Its capital was Itzamkanac. The people of Acalan were called Mactun in the Chontal Maya language. Cuauhtemoc, ruler of Tenochtitlan, was executed by Hernán Cortés while they were stopped in Acalan.
The Maya is a Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as its art, architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems. Initially established during the Pre-Classic period (c. 2000 BC to 250 AD), according to the Mesoamerican chronology, many Maya cities reached their highest state development during the Classic period (c.
Although the Maya were once thought to have been peaceful (see below), current theories emphasize the role of inter-polity warfare as a factor in the development and perpetuation of Maya society. The goals and motives of warfare in Maya culture are not thoroughly understood, but there are several kinds of archaeological clues. These include fortified defenses around structure complexes, artistic and epigraphical depictions of war, and weapons such as obsidian blades and projectile points.
The roles and representation of women in Maya society has been a comparatively little-studied subfield of Mayanist research, which nonetheless has benefited from an increasing scholarly attention in the latter-half of the 20th century and into the present.